Standard Article

Invertebrate Locomotor Systems

Handbook of Physiology, Comparative Physiology

  1. Robert J. Full

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp130212

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Full, R. J. 2011. Invertebrate Locomotor Systems. Comprehensive Physiology. 853–930.

Author Information

  1. Department of integrative Biology, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Mechanisms of Locomotion
    • 1.1
      Swimming
    • 1.2
      Crawling
    • 1.3
      Walking, Running, and Rolling
    • 1.4
      Jumping
    • 1.5
      Flying
    • 1.6
      Comparison of Locomotor Dynamics
  • 2
    Production of Locomotion: Musculoskeletal Systems
    • 2.1
      Filament, Sarcomere, and Muscle Level
  • 3
    Energetics of Locomotion
    • 3.1
      Aerobic Metabolism
    • 3.2
      Anaerobic Metabolism
    • 3.3
      Endurance and Metabolism
    • 3.4
      Metabolic Cost of Transport
  • 4
    Conclusions
    • 4.1
      Trends
  • 5
    Future Research
    • 5.1
      Comparative Muscle Physiology
    • 5.2
      Comparative Bioenergetics and Exercise Physiology
    • 5.3
      Comparative Biomechanics
    • 5.4
      Collaboration
    • 5.5
      Direct-Experiments Using Innovative Technology
    • 5.6
      Cybercreatures and Experiments: Computer Modeling
  • 6
    Appendix: List of Symbols