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Anhydrobiosis: Cellular Adaptation to Extreme Dehydration

Handbook of Physiology, Comparative Physiology

  1. John H. Crowe1,
  2. Lois M. Crowe1,
  3. John E. Carpenter1,
  4. Steven Petrelski2,
  5. Folkert A. Hoekstra3,
  6. Pedro De Araujo4,
  7. Anita D. Panek5

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp130220

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Crowe, J. H., Crowe, L. M., Carpenter, J. E., Petrelski, S., Hoekstra, F. A., Araujo, P. D. and Panek, A. D. 2011. Anhydrobiosis: Cellular Adaptation to Extreme Dehydration. Comprehensive Physiology. 1445–1477.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Section of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California, Davis, Davis, California

  2. 2

    Amgen, Inc., Thousand Oaks, California

  3. 3

    Section of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, and Department of Plant Physiology, Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands

  4. 4

    Section of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, and Department of Biochemistry, University of Saō Paulo, Saō Paulo, Brazil

  5. 5

    Section of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, and Department of Biochemistry, Federal University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Induction of Anhydrobiosis
  • 2
    Biochemical Adaptations in Anhydrobiotes
    • 2.1
      Accumulation of Sugars by Anhydrobiotes
    • 2.2
      Sugars and the Wafer Replacement Hypothesis
    • 2.3
      Other Organic Compounds in Anhydrobiotic Plants
  • 3
    Sugars Stabilize Dry Proteins
    • 3.1
      Stabilization of Dried Proteins
    • 3.2
      Evidence for Direct Interaction between Sugars and Dry Proteins
    • 3.3
      Freezing Proteins
    • 3.4
      Preferential Interaction Mechanism and Cryoprotection of Proteins
  • 4
    Are Freezing and Dehydration Equivalent Stress Vectors?
  • 5
    Physical Properties of Phospholipids and Consequences of Dehydration
    • 5.1
      The Hydration Force
    • 5.2
      Effects of Water on the Physical Properties of Phospholipids
    • 5.3
      Physiological Consequences of Dehydration
  • 6
    Stabilization of Dry Liposomes
    • 6.1
      Retention of Trapped Solutes
    • 6.2
      Is the Bulk Concentration of Trehalose Important for Preservation?
    • 6.3
      Effects of Other Sugars
    • 6.4
      Mechanism of Stabilization of Dry Bilayers
    • 6.5
      Sugars and Lipid Phase Transitions
    • 6.6
      A Corollary to the Phase Transition Model
    • 6.7
      Effects of Trehalose on Phase Transitions in Dry DPPC
  • 7
    Mechanism of Interactions Between Sugars and Phospholipids
    • 7.1
      Evidence for Direct Interaction
    • 7.2
      When During the Drying Process Does Direct Interaction Occur?
  • 8
    Vitrification: An Alternative to the Water Replacement Hypothesis?
  • 9
    Extension of the Phase Transition Hypothesis to Native Membranes
  • 10
    Extension of the Phase Transition Hypothesis to Intact Cells
    • 10.1
      Effects on Phase Transitions in Intact Cells
    • 10.2
      The Phenomenon of Imbibitional Damage
    • 10.3
      Escape from Imbibitional Damage
    • 10.4
      Effects of Temperature on Leakage
    • 10.5
      What Is the Mechanism of Leakage?
    • 10.6
      Evidence for Gel-to-Liquid Crystalline Phase Transitions During Imbibition
    • 10.7
      Imbibition, Lipid Phase Transitions, and Germination
    • 10.8
      A Hydration-Dependent Phase Diagram for Dry Cells
    • 10.9
      General Applicability of FTIR for Studies on Anhydrobiotes
    • 10.10
      Depression of Tm in Dry Pollen
    • 10.11
      Lipid Phase Transitions and Imbibitional Leakage in Dry Yeast
  • 11
    Toward a Mechanism for Stabilizing Dry Cells
    • 11.1
      Potential Routes for the Introduction of Trehalose into Cells
    • 11.2
      Studies on Genetics of Trehalose Synthesis
    • 11.3
      Survival of Drying by Mutants
    • 11.4
      A Transport System for Trehalose in Yeasts
    • 11.5
      Conditions for Expression of the Trehalose Transporter
    • 11.6
      Prospectus for Stabilizing Dry Cells
  • 12
    Are Additional Adaptations Required in Anhydrobiosis?
    • 12.1
      Studies on Nematodes
    • 12.2
      Studies on Pollen
    • 12.3
      Mechanism of Destabilization of Membranes by Fatty Acids
    • 12.4
      Generation of Free Fatty Acids in Dry Bilayers: Oxidation
    • 12.5
      Enzymatic Deesterification of Fatty Acids: Lipases
    • 12.6
      Is PLA2 Active in Dry Bilayers?
    • 12.7
      Inhibition of PLA2
  • 13
    Summary of Adaptations to Dehydration: Is Trehalose Sufficient?