Anhydrobiosis: Cellular Adaptation to Extreme Dehydration
Handbook of Physiology, Comparative Physiology
Published Online: 1 JAN 2011
Copyright © 2010 American Physiological Society. All rights reserved.
How to Cite
Crowe, J. H., Crowe, L. M., Carpenter, J. E., Petrelski, S., Hoekstra, F. A., Araujo, P. D. and Panek, A. D. 2011. Anhydrobiosis: Cellular Adaptation to Extreme Dehydration. Comprehensive Physiology. 1445–1477.
- Published Online: 1 JAN 2011
The sections in this article are:
- 1Induction of Anhydrobiosis
- 2Biochemical Adaptations in Anhydrobiotes
- 2.1Accumulation of Sugars by Anhydrobiotes
- 2.2Sugars and the Wafer Replacement Hypothesis
- 2.3Other Organic Compounds in Anhydrobiotic Plants
- 3Sugars Stabilize Dry Proteins
- 3.1Stabilization of Dried Proteins
- 3.2Evidence for Direct Interaction between Sugars and Dry Proteins
- 3.3Freezing Proteins
- 3.4Preferential Interaction Mechanism and Cryoprotection of Proteins
- 4Are Freezing and Dehydration Equivalent Stress Vectors?
- 5Physical Properties of Phospholipids and Consequences of Dehydration
- 5.1The Hydration Force
- 5.2Effects of Water on the Physical Properties of Phospholipids
- 5.3Physiological Consequences of Dehydration
- 6Stabilization of Dry Liposomes
- 6.1Retention of Trapped Solutes
- 6.2Is the Bulk Concentration of Trehalose Important for Preservation?
- 6.3Effects of Other Sugars
- 6.4Mechanism of Stabilization of Dry Bilayers
- 6.5Sugars and Lipid Phase Transitions
- 6.6A Corollary to the Phase Transition Model
- 6.7Effects of Trehalose on Phase Transitions in Dry DPPC
- 7Mechanism of Interactions Between Sugars and Phospholipids
- 7.1Evidence for Direct Interaction
- 7.2When During the Drying Process Does Direct Interaction Occur?
- 8Vitrification: An Alternative to the Water Replacement Hypothesis?
- 9Extension of the Phase Transition Hypothesis to Native Membranes
- 10Extension of the Phase Transition Hypothesis to Intact Cells
- 10.1Effects on Phase Transitions in Intact Cells
- 10.2The Phenomenon of Imbibitional Damage
- 10.3Escape from Imbibitional Damage
- 10.4Effects of Temperature on Leakage
- 10.5What Is the Mechanism of Leakage?
- 10.6Evidence for Gel-to-Liquid Crystalline Phase Transitions During Imbibition
- 10.7Imbibition, Lipid Phase Transitions, and Germination
- 10.8A Hydration-Dependent Phase Diagram for Dry Cells
- 10.9General Applicability of FTIR for Studies on Anhydrobiotes
- 10.10Depression of Tm in Dry Pollen
- 10.11Lipid Phase Transitions and Imbibitional Leakage in Dry Yeast
- 11Toward a Mechanism for Stabilizing Dry Cells
- 11.1Potential Routes for the Introduction of Trehalose into Cells
- 11.2Studies on Genetics of Trehalose Synthesis
- 11.3Survival of Drying by Mutants
- 11.4A Transport System for Trehalose in Yeasts
- 11.5Conditions for Expression of the Trehalose Transporter
- 11.6Prospectus for Stabilizing Dry Cells
- 12Are Additional Adaptations Required in Anhydrobiosis?
- 12.1Studies on Nematodes
- 12.2Studies on Pollen
- 12.3Mechanism of Destabilization of Membranes by Fatty Acids
- 12.4Generation of Free Fatty Acids in Dry Bilayers: Oxidation
- 12.5Enzymatic Deesterification of Fatty Acids: Lipases
- 12.6Is PLA2 Active in Dry Bilayers?
- 12.7Inhibition of PLA2
- 13Summary of Adaptations to Dehydration: Is Trehalose Sufficient?