Standard Article

Variations in Salinity, Osmolarity, and Water Availability: Vertebrates and Invertebrates

Handbook of Physiology, Comparative Physiology

  1. Raymond Gllles1,
  2. Eric Delpire2

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp130222

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Gllles, R. and Delpire, E. 2011. Variations in Salinity, Osmolarity, and Water Availability: Vertebrates and Invertebrates. Comprehensive Physiology. 1523–1586.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Laboratory of Animal Physiology, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium

  2. 2

    Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Extracellular Fluid
    • 1.1
      Extracellular Fluid as a Passive Osmotic Buffer
    • 1.2
      Extracellular Fluid as an Active Osmotic Buffer
  • 2
    Intracellular Fluid
    • 2.1
      Osmoregulation: Osmotic Effectors and Volume Control
    • 2.2
      Mechanisms of Cellular Volume Control
    • 2.3
      Osmoregulation: Osmotic Effectors and Activity of Macromolecules
  • 3
    Conclusion
  • 4
    Update
    • 4.1
      Note Added in Proof