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Daily and Seasonal Rhythms

Handbook of Physiology, Comparative Physiology

  1. Herbert A. Underwood1,
  2. Gary T. Wassmer2,
  3. Terry L. Page3

Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp130224

Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

How to Cite

Underwood, H. A., Wassmer, G. T. and Page, T. L. 2011. Daily and Seasonal Rhythms. Comprehensive Physiology. 1653–1763.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Zoology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina

  2. 2

    Department of Biology, Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana

  3. 3

    Department of Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 JAN 2011

Abstract

The sections in this article are:

  • 1
    Daily Rhythms
    • 1.1
      Models and Mechanisms
  • 2
    Circadian Pacemaking Systems in Invertebrates
    • 2.1
      Pacemakers in the Arthropod Brain
    • 2.2
      Circadian Pacemakers Outside the Nervous System in Insects
    • 2.3
      Pacemakers in the Gastropod Retina
    • 2.4
      Multioscillator Organization
    • 2.5
      Identification of Output Pathways
  • 3
    Circadian Pacemaking Systems in Vertebrates
    • 3.1
      The Mammalian SCN
    • 3.2
      Other Circadian Oscillators in Mammals
    • 3.3
      Hypothalamic Regulation of Circadian Function in Nonmammalian Vertebrates
    • 3.4
      The Pineal Organ
    • 3.5
      Eyes as Clocks
  • 4
    Photoreceptor Localization and Mechanisms of Entrainment in Invertebrates
    • 4.1
      Photoreceptive Input: Invertebrates
    • 4.2
      Mechanisms of Regulation of Pacemaker Phase
  • 5
    Photoreceptor Localization and Mechanisms of Entrainment in Vertebrates
    • 5.1
      Identification of Photoreceptors
    • 5.2
      Mechanisms of Regulation of Pacemaker Phase
  • 6
    Seasonality in Invertebrates
    • 6.1
      Modes of Seasonality
    • 6.2
      Timing of Seasonal Cycles
    • 6.3
      Photoperiodic Time Measurement
    • 6.4
      Mechanisms of Photoperiodic Time Measurement
    • 6.5
      The Photoperiodic Timer
    • 6.6
      The Photoperiodic Counter
    • 6.7
      Anatomical Location of Timers and Counters
    • 6.8
      Photoreceptors
    • 6.9
      Circannual Rhythms
  • 7
    Seasonality in Vertebrates
    • 7.1
      Photoperiodic Time Measurement: Models and Experimental Validation
  • 8
    Physiological Mechanisms
    • 8.1
      The Pineal and Melatonin: Mammals
    • 8.2
      Mechanisms of Pineal Action
    • 8.3
      The Pineal and Melatonin: Nonmammalian Vertebrates
    • 8.4
      Photoreceptive Inputs: Mammalian
    • 8.5
      Photoreceptive Inputs: Nonmammalian
    • 8.6
      Maternal–Fetal Transfer of Photoperiodic Information
  • 9
    Circannual Rhythms
    • 9.1
      Physiological Mechanisms
  • 10
    Concluding Comments