Facile Low-Temperature Approach to Tin-Containing ZnO Nanocrystals with Tunable Tin Concentrations Using Heterobimetallic Sn/Zn Single-Source Precursors

Authors

  • Marianna Tsaroucha,

    1. Department of Chemistry: Metalorganics and Inorganic Materials, Technische Universität Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany), Fax: (+49) 30-314 29732
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  • Dr. Yilmaz Aksu,

    1. Department of Chemistry: Metalorganics and Inorganic Materials, Technische Universität Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany), Fax: (+49) 30-314 29732
    2. New Address: Akdeniz University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Dumlupinar Bulvari, 07058 Antalya (Turkey)
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  • Dr. Jan Dirk Epping,

    1. Department of Chemistry: Metalorganics and Inorganic Materials, Technische Universität Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany), Fax: (+49) 30-314 29732
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  • Prof. Dr. Matthias Driess

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemistry: Metalorganics and Inorganic Materials, Technische Universität Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany), Fax: (+49) 30-314 29732
    • Department of Chemistry: Metalorganics and Inorganic Materials, Technische Universität Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany), Fax: (+49) 30-314 29732
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Abstract

Stannyl-substituted [(RZn)4(OR′)4] cubanes with different tin-containing alkoxy groups [Ph3SnOZnMe] (1), [Ph3SnOZnEt] (2), [Me3SnOZntBu] (3), and [Ph3SnOZntBu] (4) are easily accessible by Brønsted acid–base reaction of the corresponding triorganotin hydroxides with ZnMe2, ZnEt2, and Zn(tBu)2, respectively. All new compounds 14 were characterized by various spectroscopic methods and the structures of 1 and 3 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The thermal degradation of the precursors 1–4 under dry synthetic air (20 % O2, 80 %N2) was studied and the final oxide materials were characterized by employing powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), transmission and scanning electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Remarkably, compounds 1 and 2 proved to be suitable as single-source precursors (SSPs) for the efficient preparation of tin-doped ZnO nanoparticles with tunable tin concentrations as a promising system for steering and improving the optoelectronic properties of tin-doped ZnO. Using 3 as SSP furnishes tin-containing ZnO materials with good electron mobilities at relatively low processing temperatures (350 °C) for thin-film transistor (TFT) applications. All the thin films of tin-doped ZnO prepared by spin-coating on silicon wafers are of great homogeneity and amorphous structure, which is promising for future applications in the field of transparent conducting oxides (TCOs).

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