Composites between carbon fibers (CFs) and heterogeneous materials have been widely studied and their fabrication techniques have been developed. However, their hydrophobic surfaces make it difficult to disperse CFs into hydrophilic resins, which results in weak junctions with ceramics. To develop high-strength composite fibers, it is important to design interfacial chemical bonds. Thus, surface-modification techniques of CFs have recently become the main focus and their interfaces have been characterized by various analytical methods. In this Minireview, various techniques that modify the CF surface by coating with inorganic polymers (metal oxide compounds) are highlighted, and the applications of novel nanocomposite fibers are also described. Furthermore, interfacial bonds between CFs and polymer resins are reviewed and discussed in terms of CF-reinforced plastics and their future prospects.