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Keywords:

  • conducting materials;
  • electrochemistry;
  • polymers;
  • nanotubes;
  • titanium

Abstract

With the aim of inducing angiogenesis and neurogenesis between implants and bone tissue through electrical signals, conducting polypyrrole (PPy) nanotube arrays (CPNAs) as an implant surface were designed. Large-area CPNAs were fabricated on biomedical titanium by means of template-free electrochemical polymerization based on prenucleation film. The nanoarchitectures were able to be finely tuned between cylindrical and conical nanotubes by tailoring the electrochemical parameters, which were accompanied by a shift in the crystallinity. Accordingly, we propose insight into the fine-tunable fabrication of CPNAs. The prenucleation film possessed a great capability for forming sufficient active nucleation sites that created an isotropic two-dimensional environment, which is a desired medium for facilitating the fabrication of large-area CPNAs on biomedical titanium. Moreover, the fine-tunability of the nanoarchitectures results from the dependency of pyrrole solubility in phosphate buffer solution on the electrochemical conditions.