• conducting materials;
  • electrochemistry;
  • polymers;
  • nanotubes;
  • titanium


With the aim of inducing angiogenesis and neurogenesis between implants and bone tissue through electrical signals, conducting polypyrrole (PPy) nanotube arrays (CPNAs) as an implant surface were designed. Large-area CPNAs were fabricated on biomedical titanium by means of template-free electrochemical polymerization based on prenucleation film. The nanoarchitectures were able to be finely tuned between cylindrical and conical nanotubes by tailoring the electrochemical parameters, which were accompanied by a shift in the crystallinity. Accordingly, we propose insight into the fine-tunable fabrication of CPNAs. The prenucleation film possessed a great capability for forming sufficient active nucleation sites that created an isotropic two-dimensional environment, which is a desired medium for facilitating the fabrication of large-area CPNAs on biomedical titanium. Moreover, the fine-tunability of the nanoarchitectures results from the dependency of pyrrole solubility in phosphate buffer solution on the electrochemical conditions.