Impact of Proton Concentration on Equilibrium Potential and Polarization of Vanadium Flow Batteries

Authors

  • Xiaoli Xi,

    1. Division of Energy Storage, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.457Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (P.R. China), Fax: (+86) 0411-84665057
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (P.R. China)
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  • Prof. Xianfeng Li,

    1. Division of Energy Storage, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.457Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (P.R. China), Fax: (+86) 0411-84665057
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  • Chenhui Wang,

    1. Division of Energy Storage, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.457Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (P.R. China), Fax: (+86) 0411-84665057
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (P.R. China)
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  • Prof. Qinzhi Lai,

    Corresponding author
    1. Division of Energy Storage, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.457Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (P.R. China), Fax: (+86) 0411-84665057
    • Division of Energy Storage, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.457Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (P.R. China), Fax: (+86) 0411-84665057

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  • Yuanhui Cheng,

    1. Division of Energy Storage, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.457Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (P.R. China), Fax: (+86) 0411-84665057
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (P.R. China)
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  • Wei Zhou,

    1. Division of Energy Storage, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.457Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (P.R. China), Fax: (+86) 0411-84665057
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (P.R. China)
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  • Cong Ding,

    1. Division of Energy Storage, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.457Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (P.R. China), Fax: (+86) 0411-84665057
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (P.R. China)
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  • Prof. Huamin Zhang

    Corresponding author
    1. Division of Energy Storage, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.457Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (P.R. China), Fax: (+86) 0411-84665057
    • Division of Energy Storage, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.457Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (P.R. China), Fax: (+86) 0411-84665057

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Abstract

The electrolyte in the vanadium flow battery (VFB) is one of the key materials in determining the energy density, which further limits its commercialization. A novel strategy of varying the proton concentration to improve electrolyte utilization is proposed to enhance the energy density of the VFB. The effects of proton concentration on the equilibrium potential and polarization have been investigated systematically. Superior electrolyte utilization at a proton concentration of 5 mol L−1 is achieved; this corresponds to a high volumetric energy density (22.5 Wh L−1) and volumetric capacity density (14.8 Ah L−1), which is favorable toward the commercial application of VFBs. This general strategy also inspires research on improving electrolyte utilization in other flow battery systems.

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