• 1
    Brackman, A.C. A Delicate Arrangement: The Strange Case of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace; Times Books: New York, 1980; Brooks, J.L. Just Before the Origin: Alfred Russel Wallace's Theory of Evolution; Columbia University Press: New York, 1984; Berry, A., Ed. Infinite Tropics: An Alfred Russel Wallace Anthology; Verso Press: London, 2002.
  • 2
    Raby, P. Alfred Russel Wallace, A Life; Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ, 2001; Shermer, M. In Darwin's Shadow: The Life and Science of Alfred Russel Wallace: A Biographical Study on the Psychology of History; Oxford University Press: New York, 2002; Fichman, M. An Elusive Victorian: The Evolution of Alfred Russel Wallace; University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 2003; Slotten, R.A. The Heretic in Darwin's Court: The Life of Alfred Russel Wallace; Columbia University Press: New York, 2004.
  • 3
    Smith, C.H., Ed. Alfred Russel Wallace; An Anthology of His Shorter Writings; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 1991; idem. Alfred Russel Wallace on Spiritualism, Man, and Evolution: An Analytical Essay; Torrington, CT, 1992; idem., Ed. Alfred Russel Wallace: Writings on Evolution, 18431912; 3 vols. Thoemmes Continuum: Bristol, UK, 2004; idem. Alfred Russel Wallace: Evolution of an Evolutionist [www document]. URL //∼smithch/wallace/chsarwp.htm. 2003-2004; idem. The Alfred Russel Wallace Page [www document]. URL //∼smithch/index1.htm. 2001–. Historian Martin Fichman has also adopted this interpretation in two recent works: Science in theistic contexts: A case study of Alfred Russel Wallace on human evolution. Osiris 2001, 16, 2d s., 227–250 idem. op. cit. (2).
  • 4
    Wallace, A.R. My Life: A Record of Events and Opinions; 2 vols. Chapman & Hall: London, 1905.
  • 5
    Wallace, A.R. The advantages of varied knowledge. In: op. cit. (4) i; pp 201204; idem. An essay, on the best method of conducting the Kington Mechanic's Institution. In: The History of Kington; Parry, R., Ed.; Kington, UK, 1845; pp 6670.; idem. The South-Wales farmer. In: op. cit. (4) i; pp 206222.
  • 6
    Marchant, J., Ed. Alfred Russel Wallace: Letters and Reminiscences; Arno Press: New York, 1975 (reprint of 1916 ed.); pp 6567.
  • 7
    Wallace, A.R. A Narrative of Travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro; Ward, Lock, & Co.: London, 1889; pp 5859.
  • 8
    Wallace, A.R. On the habits of the orang-utan of Borneo. Ann Magazine Nat Hist 1856, 18, 2d s., 26–32; on p 30.
  • 9
    op. cit., (4), i; p 360.
  • 10
    Wallace, A.R. On the law which has regulated the introduction of new species. Ann Magazine Nat Hist 1855, 16, 2d s., 184196.
  • 11
    Wallace, A.R. On the tendency of varieties to depart indefinitely from the original type. J Proc Linnean Soc Zool 1858, 3(9), 5362.
  • 12
    See: op. cit. (8); Wallace, A.R. On the great bird of paradise. Ann Magazine Nat Hist 1857, 20, 2d s., 411–416; idem. Wallace, A.R. On the natural history of the Aru Islands. Ann Magazine Nat Hist 1857, 20, 2d s., Suppl., 473485; idem. Wallace, A.R. On the Entomology of the Aru Islands. Zoologist 1858, 16, 58895894; idem. Wallace, A.R. On the Arru Islands. Proc Roy Geographical Soc Lond 18571858, 2, 163–170.
  • 13
    Smith, C.H. Wallace's 'second moment': intelligent conviction and the course of human evolution [www document]. URL //; op. cit. Smith, 2003–2004 (3).
  • 14
    op. cit. (11); p 62.
  • 15
    Bateson, G. Steps to an Ecology of Mind; Chandler Publishing Co.: San Francisco, 1972; p 435.
  • 16
    Bateson, G. Mind and Nature: A Necessary Unity; Dutton: New York, 1979; p 43.
  • 17
    Maruyama, M. The second cybernetics: Deviation-amplifying mutual causal processes. Am Sci 1963, 51, 164179.
  • 18
    Smith, C.H. The Dynamics of Animal Distribution: An Evolutionary/Ecological Model. University of Illinois: PhD Dissertation, 1984;idem. Smith, C.H. A contribution to the geographical interpretation of biological change. Acta Biotheoretica 1986, 35, 229278;idem. Smith, C.H. Historical biogeography: geography as evolution, evolution as geography. New Zealand J Zool 1989, 16, 773785.
  • 19
    Gould, S.J. Wallace's fatal flaw. Nat Hist 1980, 89(1), 2640.
  • 20
    Wiley, E.O.; Brooks, D.R. Victims of history—a nonequilibrium approach to evolution. Systematic Zool 1982, 31, 124; Brooks, D.R.; Wiley, E.O. Evolution as Entropy: Toward a Unified Theory of Biology; University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 1986.
  • 21
    Hennig, W. Phylogenetic Systematics; University of Illinois Press: Urbana, IL, 1966; Nelson, G.J.; Rosen, D.E., Eds. Vicariance Biogeography: A Critique; Columbia University Press: New York, 1981; Nelson, G.J.; Platnick, N.I., Eds. Systematics and Biogeography: Cladistics and Vicariance; Columbia University Press: New York, 1981.
  • 22
    O'Hara, R.J. Homage to Clio, or, toward an historical philosophy for evolutionary biology. Systematic Zool 1988, 37, 142155;idem. O'Hara, R.J. Telling the tree: narrative representation and the study of evolutionary history. Biol Philos 1992, 7, 135160.
  • 23
    Greer-Wooten, B. The Role of General Systems Theory in Geographical Research. Department of Geography, York University: Discussion Paper 3, 1972; pp 1718.
  • 24
    Wallace, A.R. Man's Place in the Universe; London: Chapman & Hall, 1903;idem. Wallace, A.R. The World of Life; Chapman & Hall: London, 1910.
  • 25
    Once thought to be mere eccentricities, Wallace's excursions into spiritualism, socialism and other radical ventures are increasingly being recognized as fitting logically into his overall philosophy of nature. See op. cit. Fichman 2003 (2).
  • 26
    See, for example: Lovelock, J.E. The Ages of Gaia: A Biography of Our Living Earth; Norton: New York, 1988; Lenton, T.M. Gaia and natural selection. Nature 1998, 394, 439447; Barrow, J.D.; Tipler, F.J. The Anthropic Cosmological Principle; Oxford University Press: New York, 1986.
  • 27
    op. cit. (18).
  • 28
    See, for example: Hawkins, B.A.; Porter, E.E. Relative influences of current and historical factors on mammal and bird diversity patterns in deglaciated North America. Global Ecol Biogeog 2003, 12, 475481;idem. Hawkins, B.A.; Porter, E.E. Water-energy balance and the geographic pattern of species richness of western Palearctic butterflies. Ecol Entomol 2003, 28, 678686; Hawkins, B.A.; Porter, E.E.; Diniz, J.A.F. Productivity and history as predictors of the latitudinal diversity gradient of terrestrial birds. Ecology 2003, 84, 16081623; Hawkins, B.A.; et al. Energy, water, and broad-scale geographic patterns of species richness. Ecology 2003, 84, 31053117; Kerr, J.T.; Currie, D.J. The relative importance of evolutionary and environmental controls on broad-scale patterns of species richness in North America. Ecoscience 1999, 6, 329337; Kerr, J.T. Butterfly species richness patterns in Canada: Energy, heterogeneity, and the potential consequences of climate change. Conservation Ecol 2001, 5, Art. No. 10; O'Brien, E.M. Water-energy dynamics, climate, and prediction of woody plant species richness: An interim general model. J Biogeogr 1998, 25, 379398; Kerr, J.T.; Packer, L. Habitat heterogeneity as a determinant of mammal species richness in high-energy regions. Nature 1997, 385, 252254.
  • 29
    Lewontin, R.C. Adaptation. In: Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology; Sober, E., Ed.; MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, 1984; pp 235251, on pp 237–238.