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REFERENCES

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    (a) Wolf, B.W.;Lindell, J.;Backström, N. Speciation genetics: Current status and evolving approaches. Phil Trans Roy Soc B 2010, 365, 17171733;(b) Langerhans, R.B. Predicting evolution with generalized models of divergent selection: A case study with poeciliid fish. Integr Comp Biol 2010, 50, 11671184;(c) Reznick, D.N.;Ricklefs, R.E. Darwin's bridge between microevolution and macroevolution. Nature 2009, 457, 837842.
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    Lewontin, R.C. Adaptation. In: Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology, Sober, E., Ed.; MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, 1984; on pp 237238.
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    Morgan, C.L. Elimination and selection. Proc Bristol Naturalists' Soc 1888, 5, 273285.
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    (a) Morgan, C.L. Animal Life and Intelligence; Ginn: Boston, 1891, pp 7980;(b) Morgan, C.L. Natural selection and elimination. Nature 1888, 38, 370.
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    (a) Hutton, F.W. Darwinism and Lamarckism, Old and New; G. P. Putnam: New York, 1899, p 128;(b) Thompson, J.A. The endeavour after well-being. Nat Sci 1896, 8, 2126;(c) Weed, C.M. The hibernation of Aphides. Psyche 1896, 7, 351362;(d) Poulton, E.B. Theories of evolution. Hope Rep 1894, 1, 371393.
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    Wallace, A.R. The colours of animals and plants. I. The colours of animals. Macmillan's Mag 1877, 36, 384408, on p 405. Considerably earlier, in an 1866 letter to Darwin, he wrote: “Natural Selection . . . does not so much select special variations as exterminate the most unfavourable ones” (Alfred Russel Wallace Letters and Reminiscences); Marchant, J., Ed.; Harper: New York, 1916; on p 141.
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    Wallace, A.R. Human selection. Fortnightly Rev 1890, 48,on p 337.
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    Tooley, S.A. Heredity and pre-natal influences: An interview with Dr. Alfred Russel Wallace. Humanitarian 1894, 4, 8088.
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    Wallace, A.R. The method of organic evolution. II. Fortnightly Rev 1895, 57, 435445, on p 438.
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    Wallace, A.R. The world of life: As visualised and interpreted by Darwinism. Fortnightly Rev 1909, 85, on p 424.
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    Wallace, A.R. Evolution. In: The Progress of the Century; Harper & Brothers: New York, 1901; on p 26.
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    On page 62 of Wallace's original natural selection essay of 1858 (On the tendency of varieties to depart indefinitely from the original type. J Proc Linn Soc: Zool 1858, 3, 53–62), he describes the action of natural selection through a now famous analogy: “The action of this principle is exactly like that of the centrifugal governor of the steam engine, which checks and corrects any irregularities almost before they become evident; and in like manner no unbalanced deficiency in the animal kingdom can ever reach any conspicuous magnitude, because it would make itself felt at the very first step, by rendering existence difficult and extinction almost sure soon to follow.” In 1972 Gregory Bateson suggested that with these words Wallace had become the first cybernetician: “. . . The steam engine with a governor is simply a circular train of causal events, with somewhere a link in that chain such that the more of something, the less of the next thing in the circuit . . . If causal chains with that general characteristic are provided with energy, the result will be . . . a self-corrective system. Wallace, in fact, proposed the first cybernetic model . . . Wallace saw the matter correctly, and natural selection acts primarily to keep the species unvarying . . .” (Steps to an Ecology of Mind; Chandler Publishing Co.: San Francisco, 1972, on p 435). For a recent perspective see: Bell, G. Fluctuating selection: the perpetual renewal of adaptation in variable environments. Phil Trans Roy Soc B 2010, 365, 8797.
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    (a) Qian, H.;Wang, S.;Li, Y.;Wang, X. Breeding bird diversity in relation to environnmental gradients in China. Acta Oecologica 2009, 35, 819823;(b) Keil, P.;Simova, I.;Hawkins, B.A. Water-energy and the geographical species richness pattern of European and North African dragonflies (Odonata). Insect Conserv Divers 2008, 1, 142150;(c) Hawkins, B.A.;Porter, E.E. Relative influences of current and historical factors on mammal and bird diversity patterns in deglaciated North America. Global Ecol Biogeog 2003, 12, 475481;(d) Hawkins, B.A.;Porter, E.E. Water-energy balance and the geographic pattern of species richness of western Palearctic butterflies. Ecol Entomol 2003, 28, 678686;(e) Hawkins, B.A.; Field, R.;Cornell, H.V.;Currie, D.J.;Guégan, J.-F.;Kaufman, D.M.;Kerr, J.T.;Mittelbach, G.G.;Oberdorff, T.;O'Brien, E.M.;Porter, E.E.;Turner, J.R.G. Energy, water, and broad-scale geographic patterns of species richness. Ecology 2003, 84, 31053117.
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    Smith, C.H. The Dynamics of Animal Distribution: An Evolutionary/Ecological Model. University of Illinois: PhD Dissertation, 1984, on p 62. Available at: http://people.wku.edu/charles.smith/DISS/dissertation.htm. Accessed March 27, 2011.
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    Wagner, A. Neutralism and selectionism: A network-based reconciliation. Nat Rev Gen 2008, 9, 965974.
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    In a recent paper (Links between global taxonomic diversity, ecological diversity and the expansion of vertebrates on land. Biol Letters 2010, 6, 544–547) S. Sahney, M.J. Benton, and P.A. Ferry have made related arguments in trying to understand dinosaur diversification as a function not of competition, but of occupying new environments.
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    Lane, N. Oxygen; the Molecule that Made the World; Oxford University Press: New York, 2002.
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    (a) Ben Saad, M.M.;Maurel, D.L. Long-day inhibition of reproduction and circadian photogonadosensitivity in Zembra Island wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Biol Reprod 2002, 66, 415420;(b) Hague, E.B.;Hague, T.E. Aspects of intra-relevancies of photoperiodism: A review. J Interdisciplinary Cycle Res 1970, 1, 8993.
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    Smith, C.H. A general approach to the study of spatial systems. I. The relational representation of measurable attributes. Int J Gen Syst 1986, 12, 359384.
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    Bowler, P.J. Do we need a non-Darwinian industry? Notes Rec R Soc 2010, 63, 393398.
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    (a) Shapiro, S. The Darwin show. London Rev Books 2010, 32, 39. See also parallel remarks in(b) Safina, C. Darwinism must dies so that evolution may live. The New York Times, 10 February2009, D3;(c)Damiani, G.Corrections to chance fluctuations: quantum mind in biological evolution?Rivista di Biol 2009, 102, 419446.
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    Chomsky, N. Three factors in language design. Ling Inq 2005, 36, 122.
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    Deacon, T.W. A role for relaxed selection in the evolution of the language capacity. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2010, 107 ( suppl 2), 90009006.
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    (a) Kutschera, U. Symbiogenesis, natural selection, and the dynamic earth. Theory Biosci 2009, 128, 191203;(b) Reiss, J.O. Not by Design; Retiring Darwin's Watchmaker; University of California Press: Berkeley,2009;(c)Wainwright, M. The origin of species without Darwin and Wallace. Saudi J Biol Sci 2010, 17, 187204.
  • 34
    (a) Bock, W.J. Multiple explanations in Darwinian evolutionary theory. Acta Biotheor 2010, 58, 6579.(b) Fogel, G.B.;Fogel, D.B. Simulating natural selection as a culling mechanism on finite populations with the hawk–dove game. Biosystems 2011, 104, 5762;(c) Venette, R.C.;Kriticos, D.J.;Magarey, R.D.;Koch, F.H.;Baker, R.H.A.;Worner, S.P.;Gómez Raboteaux, N.N.;McKenney, D.W.;Dobesberger, E.J.;Yemshanov, D.;De Barro, P.J.;Hutchison, W.D.;Fowler, G.;Kalaris, T.M.;Pedlar. J. Pesk risk maps for invasive alien species: a roadmap for improvement. BioScience 2010, 60, 349362.