Cognitive models of Obsessive–Compulsive disorder (OCD) have emphasized inflated responsibility (Salkovskis, 1985), thought–action fusion (Rachman, 1993), and metacognitive beliefs (Wells, 1997; Wells & Matthews, 1994), as factors contributing to disorder. The metacognitive model views responsibility as a by-product of metacognitions that make little additional contribution to OCD, and gives rise to the following hypotheses: (1) responsibility and meta-cognitive beliefs are positively correlated with obsessive–compulsive symptoms, (2) the relationship between responsibility and obsessive–compulsive symptoms is statistically dependent on meta-cognition, (3) meta-cognitions positively correlate with obsessive–compulsive symptoms independently of responsibility. The results supported each of these hypotheses and exploratory analyses were conducted to find the best unique set of predictors among a range of metacognitive dimensions. Metacognitive beliefs concerning need to control thoughts, thought–action fusion, and negative beliefs about cognitive competence emerged as reliable predictors. An additional contribution was made by thought–event fusion in one equation. The results provide support for the meta-cognitive model. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.