The Frustration Discomfort Scale: development and psychometric properties



Frustration intolerance beliefs are hypothesized by rational–emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) to form one of two major categories of psychological disturbance, along with those referring to self-worth. Although frustration intolerance is a central REBT concept its content and factor structure are unclear. Therefore, a multidimensional measure, the Frustration Discomfort Scale (FDS), was developed based on REBT literature and theory. An exploratory factor analysis, using a combined clinical and student population, indicated a four-factor structure. These dimensions were labelled (I) emotional intolerance, involving intolerance of emotional distress; (II) entitlement, involving intolerance of unfairness and frustrated gratification; (III) discomfort intolerance, involving intolerance of difficulties and hassles, and (IV) achievement, involving intolerance of frustrated achievement goals. From these results, a simplified scale was developed, with confirmatory factor analysis supporting a four-factor solution. Both the preliminary and revised scales showed good internal reliability, and evidence of discriminative validity. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.