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Crystal Research and Technology

Cover image for Vol. 52 Issue 1

Special Issue: Anniversary Issue: 50 Years of Crystal Research & Technology

January 2017

Volume 52, Issue 1

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Issue Information
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Review Articles
    7. Original Papers
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      Cover Picture: Crystal Research and Technology 1'2017

      Version of Record online: 10 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/crat.201770001

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      Anniversary Issue: 50 Years of Crystal Research & Technology

  2. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Issue Information
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Review Articles
    7. Original Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Issue Information
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Review Articles
    7. Original Papers
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  4. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Issue Information
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Review Articles
    7. Original Papers
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  5. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Issue Information
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Review Articles
    7. Original Papers
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      Dislocation patterning and bunching in crystals and epitaxial layers - a review

      Peter Rudolph

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/crat.201600171

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      Cellular patterning and dislocation bundling as structures of dislocation dynamics in as-grown crystals and epitaxial layers are reviewed.The introduction in selected phenomenological fundamentals shows that dynamical polygonization basing on dislocation glide cannot be the only possible formation process. Even at high temperatures the point defect assisted climb plays a decisional role in the dislocation dynamics. Dissipative structuring via non-equilibrium thermodynamics is considered too. Reduction of thermo-mechanical stress and control of stoichiometry are practical counter measures. Special attention is paid to the dislocation bending and bun-ching. Second phase inclusions are responsible for dislocation accumulations. Their incorporation must be avoided by good mixing of the fluid phase and composition control.

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      Recent experimental and theoretical studies on protein crystallization

      Christo N. Nanev

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/crat.201600210

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      Experimental and theoretical studies on protein crystal nucleation and growth are reviewed, and the prospects of protein-based crystalline pharmaceuticals mass-production are considered. Modeling nuclei number density as a surface, its S-shaped dependences on both supersaturation and time are found theoretically, and confirmed experimentally. Growth of protein crystals of narrow size distribution is monitored to establish crystal polydispersity cause. Ostwald ripening is considered as a post-growth stage of the crystallization process.

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      Development of carbon transport and modeling in Czochralski silicon crystal growth

      Xin Liu, Satoshi Nakano and Koichi Kakimoto

      Version of Record online: 7 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/crat.201600221

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      Advances in the modeling of carbon contamination in Czochralski silicon crystal growth are reviewed on the basis of the mass transport phenomena in the argon gas and silicon domains. Strategies for carbon content reduction are discussed on the basis of the mechanisms of carbon accumulation. The final carbon content depends on both the growth duration as well as the flux of contaminants at the gas/melt interface.

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      Strontium titanate: From symmetry changes to functionality

      Hartmut Stöcker, Juliane Hanzig, Matthias Zschornak, Erik Mehner, Sven Jachalke, Carsten Richter, Florian Hanzig, Falk Meutzner, Tilmann Leisegang and Dirk C. Meyer

      Version of Record online: 22 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/crat.201600222

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      Pure strontium titanate exhibits a cubic perovskite-type structure, but many approaches to break this high degree of symmetry are accessible. Since oxygen vacancies are the most prominent and most mobile defect species in strontium titanate, they play a crucial role also for structural changes due to external influences. Possible functionalities range from tuning of permittivity and conductivity to field-induced structure changes, which lead to applications as solid-state battery or switchable pyroelectric.

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      Sputtering and amorphization of crystalline semiconductors by Nanodroplet Bombardment

      Enric Grustan-Gutierrez, Chuqi Wei, Bingru Wang and Mario Lanza

      Version of Record online: 10 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/crat.201600240

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      Nanodroplet bombardment (NB) is a method for physical sputtering with very high fast speed, and that can etch even the hardest materials, such as SiC. For these reasons, the NB technique can be very interesting for the fabrication of next generation MEMS and NEMS, using advanced materials. This paper makes a short review of the NB technique, and presents its impact on different materials surfaces, with special emphasis on the amorphization of Silicon.

  6. Original Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Issue Information
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Review Articles
    7. Original Papers
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      A practical approach to symmorphism

      Massimo Nespolo

      Version of Record online: 26 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/crat.201600129

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      Achiral rectangular prism around the lowest multiplicity site of symmorphic space group Pmmm.

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      Wetting angles of monovalent indium iodide on different substrates

      Arne Cröll, Jochen Markert, Martin Volz and Aleksandar Ostrogorsky

      Version of Record online: 31 AUG 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/crat.201600179

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      Wetting angles of Indium monoiodide were measured on fused silica and pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN). pBN showed the highest value of 128.5°, vs. 105° for fused silica. The latter showed an extremely strong decrease with temperature. From the wetting angles and the surface tension, the work of adhesion was determined. Unfortunately, a reaction of the pBN with InI precludes its use as a crucible, leaving fused silica as the crucible choice.

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      Post-crystallization cooling behavior of aqueous supersaturated ammonium dihydrogen phosphate solutions containing acetone and methanol antisolvents added at different rates

      Keshra Sangwal and Ewa Mielniczek-Brzóska

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/crat.201600216

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      Post-crystallization cooling behavior of aqueous solutions containing ADP crystallites with time t in relation to antisolvent feeding rate RA is discussed. It was found that a steady decrease in the temperature Ts of aqueous ADP solutions with increasing time t follows Newton's law of cooling, and that a steady decrease in solution supersaturation with increasing t by diffusion of ions and their associates in aqueous ADP solutions can lead to change in the size distribution of crystallites.

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      Identification of solid oxygen-containing Na-electrolytes: An assessment based on crystallographic and economic parameters

      Falk Meutzner, Wolfram Münchgesang, Tilmann Leisegang, Robert Schmid, Matthias Zschornak, Mateo Ureña de Vivanco, Alexander P. Shevchenko, Vladislav A. Blatov and Dirk C. Meyer

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/crat.201600223

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      The authors have scanned the inorganic crystal structure database (>180,000 structures) using Voronoi-Dirichlet methodology for inorganic, crystalline, solid Na electrolytes. They used data generated from the currently widest-spread materials to lay a foundation for the crystallographic data mining and introduced an evaluation and scoring scheme based on nine different crystallographic and economic parameters in order to systematise the 400 resulting candidates and point towards the most promising materials.

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      Comparative study of dislocation density characterizations on silicon

      B. Gallien, S. Bailly and T. Duffar

      Version of Record online: 22 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/crat.201600224

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      This study involves characterizing the sample with four different methods. Before each characterization, the sample is polished to obtain a mirror surface, by SiC grinding (EPA 1200 and 2400) and diamond paste polishing down to 1 μm. Then, specific chemical etching and dislocation density measurement are performed.

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      Reevaluation of phase relations in the chemical system neodymium lutetium oxide NdLuO3

      Tamino Hirsch, Reinhard Uecker and Detlef Klimm

      Version of Record online: 22 SEP 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/crat.201600237

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      The phase relations of NdLuO3 were investigated. A mixture of solid solutions in the cubic C and in the monoclinic B rare earth oxide structure exists between 1200 and 1650 °C. The C-phase is dominated by Lu content while the B-phase is Nd rich. With rising temperature, the portion of Nd in the C-phase is increased and lowered for the B-phase. No evidence for stability of perovskitic NdLuO3 could be found. Thermal signals up to 2184 °C were examined.

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      Growth of crystalline semiconductor structures on amorphous substrates for photovoltaic applications

      T. Boeck, F. Ringleb and R. Bansen

      Version of Record online: 10 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/crat.201600239

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      The growth of defined crystalline structures on amorphous materials is an almost generally difficult task. Due to the lack of a crystallographic lattice, no epitaxial intergrowth can be realized. However, for many applications the growth of crystalline layers or microstructures on such substrates is required. For large area devices such as solar cells, locally selective seeding of silicon or chalcopyrite on glass is a promising method.

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      Linear electrooptic effect of the monoclinic polar bismuth triborate, BiB3O6

      Ladislav Bohatý, René Ochrombel, Josef Liebertz and Petra Becker

      Version of Record online: 14 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/crat.201600250

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      The nonlinear optical crystal BiB3O6 (“BIBO”) is introduced as an attractive linear electrooptic material. All components of the electrooptic tensor are determined and the analysis of the tensor proves that the effective electrooptic coefficients of BiB3O6 are superior to those of other NLO borate crystals and are comparable in magnitude to those of the electrooptic material KH2PO4 (KDP).

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      Electron backscatter diffraction beyond the mainstream

      Gert Nolze, Ralf Hielscher and Aimo Winkelmann

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/crat.201600252

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      EBSD patterns acquired even under common conditions can deliver much more information in higher precision and accuracy than nowadays extracted by standard processing. This concerns the orientation resolution just as the invalidity of Friedel's rule, the processing of pseudosymmetric phases, or even a lattice parameter determination from single EBSD patterns. The key approach is an automated matching of experimental with simulated patterns.

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      Orientation relationships of Mn0.75Ga0.25As crystallites on and within GaAs determined by scanning nano beam electron diffraction

      Ines Häusler, Peter Moeck, Kerstin Volz and Wolfgang Neumann

      Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1002/crat.201600261

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      Scanning nano beam electron diffraction was employed to determine the orientation relationships of different crystallographic phases of (Mn,Ga)As crystallites in a GaAs matrix. The orientation relationships are illustrated by means of corresponding color coded stereographic projections.

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