Reconstructing ripeness II: Models and methods for fostering constructive stakeholder engagement across protracted divides



A priority objective for diplomats, mediators, negotiators, and other individuals working to rectify seemingly intractable conflicts is to help foster stakeholder “ripeness,” or a willingness and commitment to engage constructively in the conflict. This is often extremely difficult to achieve due to long histories between the parties of animosity, suspicion, hostility, and fear. Ripeness theory has been a useful starting point for understanding such motives, but has limited explanatory power under conditions of intractable conflict. The second in a two-part series, this article outlines the implications for practice resulting from an analysis of interviews with expert scholar-practitioners working in the field with intractable conflicts.