Energetic N,N,N′,N′-Tetraaminopiperazinium Salts



The formation of tetraaminopiperazinium salts using water as solvent provides a green, straightforward approach to highly energetic salts that exhibit good thermal stabilities and moderate densities. The N,N,N′,N′-tetraaminopiperazinium cation was selected for this study because of its high nitrogen–nitrogen bond content and its high positive heat of formation. Theoretical and empirical calculations on energetic salts based on this nitrogen-rich cation reveal them to have high positive molar enthalpies of formation, as high as 1034.0 kJ mol−1, supporting the application of these new salts as potential energetic materials.