• biomass;
  • carbon dioxide;
  • renewable resources;
  • sustainable chemistry;
  • synfuels


This Full Paper illustrates the use of the C factor (CO2/product mass ratio) as a parameter to evaluate the CO2-burden of a product. The C factor contains information of the total amount of CO2 emitted in order to produce a product, and thus enables a direct comparison of different processes from a CO2 aspect. We illustrate how this simple concept can be used to evaluate different resource types and processes. The C factors for different chemicals such as methanol, synfuels, and acetic acid are calculated for oil, coal, natural gas, and biomass. Based on these calculations, the combination of biomass and natural gas is an attractive alternative to coal, leading to products that have significantly lower C factors.