Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reactions in Aqueous Media: Green and Sustainable Syntheses of Biaryls



Carbon–carbon cross-coupling reactions are among the most important processes in organic chemistry, and Suzuki–Miyaura reactions are among the most widely used protocols for the formation of carbon–carbon bonds. These reactions are generally catalyzed by soluble palladium complexes with various ligands. However, the use of toxic organic solvents remains a scientific challenge and an aspect of economical and ecological relevance. This Review will summarize various recently developed significant methods by which the Suzuki–Miyaura coupling was conducted in aqueous media, and analyzes if they are “real green” protocols.