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Hydrogen Production over Titania-Based Photocatalysts



Because of their relatively high efficiency, high photostability, abundance, low cost, and nontoxic qualities, titania-based photocatalysts are still the most extensively studied materials for the photocatalytic production of hydrogen from water. The effects of the chemical and physical properties of titania, including crystal phase, crystallinity, particle size, and surface area, on its photoactivity towards hydrogen generation have been identified by various investigations. The high overpotential for hydrogen generation, rapid recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes, rapid reverse reaction of molecular hydrogen and oxygen, and inability to absorb visible light are considered the most important factors that restrict the photoactivity of titania, and strategies to overcome these barriers have been developed. These issues and strategies are carefully reviewed and summarized in this Minireview. We aim to provide a critical, up-to-date overview of the development of titania-based photocatalysts for hydrogen production, as well as a comprehensive background source and guide for future research.