Next-Generation Biofuels: Survey of Emerging Technologies and Sustainability Issues

Authors

  • Dr. Sergey Zinoviev,

    1. International Centre for Science and High Technology of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (ICS-UNIDO), AREA Science Park - Bld. B, Padriciano 99, 34149, Trieste (Italy), Fax: (+39) 040 9228101
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  • Franziska Müller-Langer,

    1. DBFZ—German Biomass Research Centre, Torgauer Str. 116, 04347 Leipzig (Germany)
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  • Piyali Das ,

    1. International Centre for Science and High Technology of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (ICS-UNIDO), AREA Science Park - Bld. B, Padriciano 99, 34149, Trieste (Italy), Fax: (+39) 040 9228101
    2. The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), Darbari Seth Block, IHC Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi—110 003 (India)
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  • Dr. Nicolás Bertero ,

    1. International Centre for Science and High Technology of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (ICS-UNIDO), AREA Science Park - Bld. B, Padriciano 99, 34149, Trieste (Italy), Fax: (+39) 040 9228101
    2. Catalysis Science and Engineering Research Group (GICIC), Instituto de Investigaciones en Catálisis y Petroquímica—INCAPE, Santiago del Estero 2654, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)
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  • Prof. Paolo Fornasiero ,

    1. International Centre for Science and High Technology of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (ICS-UNIDO), AREA Science Park - Bld. B, Padriciano 99, 34149, Trieste (Italy), Fax: (+39) 040 9228101
    2. Chemistry Department and ICCOM-CNR, University of Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy)
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  • Prof. Martin Kaltschmitt ,

    1. DBFZ—German Biomass Research Centre, Torgauer Str. 116, 04347 Leipzig (Germany)
    2. Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics (IUE), Hamburg University of Technology, Eissendorfer Str. 40, 21073 Hamburg (Germany)
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  • Prof. Gabriele Centi ,

    1. International Centre for Science and High Technology of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (ICS-UNIDO), AREA Science Park - Bld. B, Padriciano 99, 34149, Trieste (Italy), Fax: (+39) 040 9228101
    2. Department of Industrial Chemistry and Engineering of Materials & CASPE (INSTM Laboratory of Catalysis for Sustainable Production & Energy), University of Messina, Salita Sperone 31, 98166 Messina (Italy)
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  • Prof. Stanislav Miertus

    1. International Centre for Science and High Technology of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (ICS-UNIDO), AREA Science Park - Bld. B, Padriciano 99, 34149, Trieste (Italy), Fax: (+39) 040 9228101
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Abstract

Next-generation biofuels, such as cellulosic bioethanol, biomethane from waste, synthetic biofuels obtained via gasification of biomass, biohydrogen, and others, are currently at the center of the attention of technologists and policy makers in search of the more sustainable biofuel of tomorrow. To set realistic targets for future biofuel options, it is important to assess their sustainability according to technical, economical, and environmental measures. With this aim, the review presents a comprehensive overview of the chemistry basis and of the technology related aspects of next generation biofuel production, as well as it addresses related economic issues and environmental implications. Opportunities and limits are discussed in terms of technical applicability of existing and emerging technology options to bio-waste feedstock, and further development forecasts are made based on the existing social-economic and market situation, feedstock potentials, and other global aspects. As the latter ones are concerned, the emphasis is placed on the opportunities and challenges of developing countries in adoption of this new industry.

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