Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates into 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural by Germanium(IV) Chloride in Ionic Liquids

Authors

  • Zehui Zhang,

    1. Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian (China), Fax: (+86) 411-84379211
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)
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  • Qian Wang,

    1. Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian (China), Fax: (+86) 411-84379211
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  • Prof. Haibo Xie,

    Corresponding author
    1. Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian (China), Fax: (+86) 411-84379211
    2. Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian 116023 (China)
    • Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian (China), Fax: (+86) 411-84379211
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  • Dr. Wujun Liu,

    1. Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian (China), Fax: (+86) 411-84379211
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  • Prof. Zongbao (Kent) Zhao

    Corresponding author
    1. Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian (China), Fax: (+86) 411-84379211
    2. Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian 116023 (China)
    • Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian (China), Fax: (+86) 411-84379211
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Abstract

Direct conversion of carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) catalyzed by germanium(IV) chloride in ionic liquids has been investigated in search of an efficient and environmentally friendly process. Monosaccharides D-fructose and D-glucose, disaccharides sucrose and maltose, and even the polysaccharide cellulose were successfully converted into HMF with good yields under mild conditions (yield up to 92 % in 5 min in the case of fructose). The structure of ionic liquids, catalyst loading, reaction temperature and water content had noticeable effects on this catalytic system. Addition of 5 Å molecular sieves during the dehydration of glucose resulted in an increase in HMF yield from 38.4 % to 48.4 %. A mechanism for glucose conversion to HMF catalyzed by germanium(IV) chloride was proposed according to 13C NMR spectra obtained in situ under different conditions using D-glucose-2-13C as the substrate.

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