Some ethers, such as cyclopentyl methyl ether and di-n-butyl ether, which can be considered as “greener” solvents than N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) or DMF, can be advantageously employed for the palladium-catalyzed direct arylation of heteroaromatics. In the presence of such ethers and only 0.5–1 mol % of palladium catalysts at 125–150 °C, the direct 5-arylation of thiazoles, thiophenes, or furans by using aryl bromides as coupling partners proceeds in moderate to high yields.
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