• arylation;
  • homogeneous catalysis;
  • microwave chemistry;
  • palladium;
  • sustainable chemistry


Indoline-based compounds are abundant in nature, and the indoline skeleton is an often-encountered scaffold in a range of biologically active alkaloids, pharmaceutically active compounds, and functional molecules (e.g., sensitizers for solar cells). The wide range of uses warrants further interest in the structural modification of this class of compounds. A series of substituted N-aryl indolines is prepared by a solvent-free, palladium-catalyzed procedure. The procedure requires only low loadings of catalyst, uses microwave irradiation, and starts from commercially available substrates. The method proceeds in good yields and in short reaction times with aryl bromides, chlorides, and iodides, also on 2-substituted indolines. The combination of solvent-free methods with microwave heating will further increase in importance in the search for more environmentally acceptable synthesis methods.