The Fenton reaction is widely used for remediation of waste water and for the degradation of organic pollutants in water. Currently, there is considerable interest to convert the classical Fenton reaction, which consumes stoichiometric amounts of iron(II) salts, into a catalytic process that is promoted by a solid. This review describes the work that has used carbonaceous materials either directly as catalysts or, more frequently, as a large-area support for catalytically activated transition metals or metal-oxide nanoparticles. The interest in this type of catalyst derives from the wide use of carbon in conventional water treatments and the wide applicability of the Fenton reaction. After two general sections that illustrate the scope and background of Fenton chemistry, the review describes the activity of activated carbon in the absence or presence of metal-containing particles. The last sections of the review focus on different types of carbonaceous materials, such as carbon nanotubes and diamond nanoparticles. The review concludes with a section that anticipates future developments in this area, which are aimed at overcoming the current limitations of low activity and occurrence of metal leaching.