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Keywords:

  • alkylphenol;
  • biomass;
  • heterogeneous catalysis;
  • renewable resources;
  • ruthenium
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Alkylphenol solvents allow a more effective production of biofuels from corn stover by enabling selective extraction and hydrogenation of levulinic acid to γ-valerolactone, and by increasing the final concentration of GVL through successive extraction/hydrogenation steps. The versatility of alkylphenol solvents may lead to their use in other biomass conversion processes utilizing mineral acids for biomass deconstruction.