The Fenton reaction (the generation of hydroxyl radicals from hydrogen peroxide) is the most useful method for degradation of organic pollutants in aqueous solution at moderate concentrations. In this Review we summarize the use of metal nanoparticles, either unsupported or deposited on large-surface-area solids, as Fenton catalysts. The Review complements two other reviews in the field of heterogeneous Fenton catalysis using aluminosilicates and carbonaceous materials. Herein, particular emphasis is given to the reaction conditions in which these catalysts are used, highlighting the operating mechanism and the relative efficiency of the materials. Aspects such as leaching of the metal to the solution, reusability, and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide used are analyzed in detail. Besides a critical description of the present status of the field, future trends and the need to establishing valid comparisons to assess the relative efficiencies of the materials are commented on.