Top of the crops: The direct use of a natural three-dimensional (3D) architecture in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is reported for the first time. Stems from the crop plant kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) are carbonized and used as anode material in MFCs. The current density generated by the carbon is comparable to that of other 3D anodes prepared by other methods. The renewable and low-cost characteristics of this material provide an excellent basis for large-scale application in microbial bioelectrochemcial systems.
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