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Keywords:

  • acid catalysis;
  • biomass;
  • enzyme catalysis;
  • renewable resources;
  • seawater
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Do you sea water? Water consumption will be a challenge in biorefineries, and the use of non-drinkable sources of water will be preferred. Herein, glucose is converted into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in a chemo-enzymatic one-pot, two-step procedure, involving immobilized glucose isomerase to produce fructose and oxalic acid to dehydrate it to HMF.