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Keywords:

  • biomass;
  • heterogeneous catalysis;
  • levulinic acid;
  • sustainable chemistry;
  • γ-valerolactone

Abstract

γ-Valerolactone (GVL) has been identified as a potential intermediate for the production of fuels and chemicals based on renewable feedstocks. Numerous heterogeneous catalysts have been used for GVL production, alongside a range of reaction setups. This Minireview seeks to outline the development of heterogeneous catalysts for the targeted conversion of levulinic acid (LA) to GVL. Emphasis has been placed on discussing specific systems, including heterogeneous noble and base metal catalysts, transfer hydrogenation, and application of scCO2 as reaction medium, with the aim of critically highlighting both the achievements and remaining challenges associated with this field.