• biocatalysis;
  • carbohydrates;
  • enzyme catalysis;
  • immobilization;
  • nmr spectroscopy


Herein, we report a new flow process with immobilized enzymes to synthesize complex chiral carbohydrate analogues from achiral inexpensive building blocks in a three-step cascade reaction. The first reactor contained immobilized acid phosphatase, which phosphorylated dihydroxyacetone to dihydroxyacetone phosphate using pyrophosphate as the phosphate donor. The second flow reactor contained fructose-1,6-diphosphate aldolase (RAMA, rabbit muscle aldolase) or rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase (RhuA from Thermotoga maritima) and acid phosphatase. The immobilized aldolases coupled the formed dihydroxyacetone phosphate to aldehydes, resulting in phosphorylated carbohydrates. A final reactor containing acid phosphatase that dephosphorylated the phosphorylated product yielded the final product. Different aldehydes were used to synthesize carbohydrates on a gram scale. To demonstrate the feasibility of the flow systems, we synthesized 0.6 g of the D-fagomine precursor. By using immobilized aldolase RhuA we were also able to obtain other stereoisomers of the D-fagomine precursor.