Graphene is one of the most promising materials in the field of nanotechnology and has attracted a tremendous amount of research interest in recent years. Due to its large specific surface area, high thermal conductivity, and superior electron mobility, graphene is regarded as an extremely attractive component for the preparation of composite materials. At the same time, the use of photocatalysts, particularly TiO2, has also been widely studied for their potential in addressing various energy and environmental-related issues. However, bare TiO2 suffers from low efficiency and a narrow light-response range. Therefore, the combination of graphene and TiO2 is currently one of the most active interdisciplinary research areas and demonstrations of photocatalytic enhancement are abundant. This Review presents and discusses the current development of graphene-based TiO2 photocatalysts. The theoretical framework of the composite, the synthetic strategies for the preparation and modification of graphene-based TiO2 photocatalysts, and applications of the composite are reviewed, with particular attention on the photodegradation of pollutants and photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen generation.