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Anion-Conductive Membranes with Ultralow Vanadium Permeability and Excellent Performance in Vanadium Flow Batteries

Authors

  • Dr. Zhensheng Mai,

    1. Division of Energy Storage, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (P.R. China), Fax: (+86) 411-84665057
    2. Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (P.R. China)
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  • Prof. Dr. Huamin Zhang,

    Corresponding author
    1. Division of Energy Storage, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (P.R. China), Fax: (+86) 411-84665057
    • Division of Energy Storage, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (P.R. China), Fax: (+86) 411-84665057
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  • Hongzhang Zhang,

    1. Division of Energy Storage, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (P.R. China), Fax: (+86) 411-84665057
    2. Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (P.R. China)
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  • Wanxing Xu,

    1. Division of Energy Storage, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (P.R. China), Fax: (+86) 411-84665057
    2. Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (P.R. China)
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  • Wenping Wei,

    1. Division of Energy Storage, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (P.R. China), Fax: (+86) 411-84665057
    2. Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (P.R. China)
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  • Prof. Dr. Hui Na,

    1. Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Qianjin Street 2699, Changchun 130012 (P.R. China)
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  • Prof. Dr. Xianfeng Li

    Corresponding author
    1. Division of Energy Storage, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (P.R. China), Fax: (+86) 411-84665057
    • Division of Energy Storage, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (P.R. China), Fax: (+86) 411-84665057
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Abstract

Anion exchange membranes prepared from quaternized poly(tetramethyl diphenyl ether sulfone) (QAPES) were first investigated in the context of vanadium flow battery (VFB) applications. The membranes showed an impressive suppression effect on vanadium ions. The recorded vanadium permeability was 0.02×10−7–0.09×10−7 cm2 min−1, which was two orders of magnitude lower than that of Nafion 115. The self-discharge duration of a VFB single cell with a QAPES membrane is four times longer than that of Nafion 115. The morphological difference in hydrophilic domains between QAPES and Nafion was confirmed by TEM. After soaking the membranes in VO2+ solution, adsorbed vanadium ions can barely be found in QAPES, whereas the hydrophilic domains of Nafion were stained. In the ex situ chemical stability test, QAPES showed a high tolerance to VO2+ and remained intact after immersion in VO2+ solution for over 250 h. The performance of a VFB single cell assembled with QAPES membranes is equal to or even better than that of Nafion 115 and remains stable in a long-term cycle test. These results indicate that QAPES membranes can be an ideal option in the fabrication of high-performance VFBs with low electric capacity loss.

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