• copper;
  • gallium;
  • indium;
  • selenium;
  • thin films


Thin-film photovoltaic devices (PVs) were prepared by selenization using oleylamine-capped Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) nanocrystals sintered at a high temperature (>500 °C) under Se vapor. The device performance varied significantly with [Ga]/[In+Ga] content in the nanocrystals. The highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) observed in the devices studied was 5.1 % under air mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5 G) illumination, obtained with [Ga]/[In+Ga]=0.32. The variation in PCE with composition is partly a result of bandgap tuning and optimization, but the main influence of nanocrystal composition appeared to be on the quality of the sintered films. The [Cu]/[In+Ga] content was found to be strongly influenced by the [Ga]/[In+Ga] concentration, which appears to be correlated with the morphology of the sintered film. For this reason, only small changes in the [Ga]/[In+Ga] content resulted in significant variations in device efficiency.