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Keywords:

  • carbonation;
  • carbon dioxide fixation;
  • kinetics;
  • process variables;
  • steel slag

Abstract

Direct gas–solid carbonation of steel slag under various operational conditions was investigated to determine the sequestration of the flue gas CO2. X-ray diffraction analysis of steel slag revealed the existence of portlandite, which provided a maximum theoretical CO2 sequestration potential of 159.4 kginline image tslag−1 as calculated by the reference intensity ratio method. The carbonation reaction occurred through a fast kinetically controlled stage with an activation energy of 21.29 kJ mol−1, followed by 103 orders of magnitude slower diffusion-controlled stage with an activation energy of 49.54 kJ mol−1, which could be represented by a first-order reaction kinetic equation and the Ginstling equation, respectively. Temperature, CO2 concentration, and the presence of SO2 impacted on the carbonation conversion of steel slag through their direct and definite influence on the rate constants. Temperature was the most important factor influencing the direct gas–solid carbonation of steel slag in terms of both the carbonation conversion and reaction rate. CO2 concentration had a definite influence on the carbonation rate during the kinetically controlled stage, and the presence of SO2 at typical flue gas concentrations enhanced the direct gas–solid carbonation of steel slag. Carbonation conversions between 49.5 % and 55.5 % were achieved in a typical flue gas at 600 °C, with the maximum CO2 sequestration amount generating 88.5 kginline image tslag−1. Direct gas–solid carbonation of steel slag showed a rapid CO2 sequestration rate, high CO2 sequestration amounts, low raw-material costs, and a large potential for waste heat utilization, which is promising for in situ carbon capture and sequestration in the steel industry.