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Solvent-Free and Catalysts-Free Chemistry: A Benign Pathway to Sustainability

Authors

  • Dr. Manoj B. Gawande,

    Corresponding author
    1. REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal), Fax: (+351) 21-2948550
    2. current address: Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Chemistry, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic)
    • Manoj B. Gawande, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal), Fax: (+351) 21-2948550

      Vasco D. B. Bonifácio, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal), Fax: (+351) 21-2948550

      Rajender S. Varma, Sustainable Technology Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, MS 443, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio, 45268 (USA)

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  • Dr. Vasco D. B. Bonifácio,

    Corresponding author
    1. REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal), Fax: (+351) 21-2948550
    • Manoj B. Gawande, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal), Fax: (+351) 21-2948550

      Vasco D. B. Bonifácio, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal), Fax: (+351) 21-2948550

      Rajender S. Varma, Sustainable Technology Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, MS 443, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio, 45268 (USA)

    Search for more papers by this author
  • Prof. Rafael Luque,

    1. Departamento de Quimica Organica, Universidad de Cordoba, Edif. Marie Curie, Ctra Nnal IVa, Km 396, 14014 Cordoba (Spain)
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  • Prof. Paula S. Branco,

    1. REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal), Fax: (+351) 21-2948550
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  • Prof. Rajender S. Varma

    Corresponding author
    1. Sustainable Technology Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, MS 443, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio, 45268 (USA)
    • Manoj B. Gawande, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal), Fax: (+351) 21-2948550

      Vasco D. B. Bonifácio, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal), Fax: (+351) 21-2948550

      Rajender S. Varma, Sustainable Technology Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, MS 443, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio, 45268 (USA)

    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

In the past decade, alternative benign organic methodologies have become an imperative part of organic syntheses and chemical reactions. The various new and innovative sustainable organic reactions and methodologies using no solvents or catalysts and employing alternative energy inputs such as microwaves, sonication, conventional and room temperature heating conditions, mechanochemical mixing, and high-speed ball milling are discussed in detail. Environmentally benign and pharmaceutically important reactions such as multicomponent, condensation, and Michael addition reactions; ring opening of epoxides; and oxidation and other significant organic reactions are discussed. An overview of benign reactions through solvent- and catalyst-free (SF–CF) chemistry and a critical perspective on emerging synergies between SF–CF organic reactions are discussed.

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