A Dication Cross-Linked Composite Anion-Exchange Membrane for All-Vanadium Flow Battery Applications

Authors

  • Dr. Fengxiang Zhang,

    Corresponding author
    1. Center for Energy Storage Technologies, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian, 116023 (PR China)
    • Center for Energy Storage Technologies, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian, 116023 (PR China)

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  • Prof. Huamin Zhang,

    Corresponding author
    1. Center for Energy Storage Technologies, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian, 116023 (PR China)
    • Center for Energy Storage Technologies, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian, 116023 (PR China)

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  • Chao Qu

    1. Center for Energy Storage Technologies, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian, 116023 (PR China)
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Abstract

We report the fabrication and properties of a high-performance, inexpensive, composite, anion-exchange membrane (AEM) for an all-vanadium flow battery (VFB) application. The AEM was fabricated by dication cross-linking without the involvement of trimethylamine, and shows well-balanced anion conductivity and robustness due to imidazolium and imidazolium–ammonium functionalities, as well as a concomitantly achieved semi-interpenetrating network structure. The VFB single cell yielded a Coulombic efficiency of 99 % and an energy efficiency of 84 % at 80 mA cm−2, and operated for over 900 charge/discharge cycles. This work demonstrates the combined use of several favorable AEM design rationales, such as incorporating abundant and efficient anion-exchange groups, constructing a swelling- and oxidation-resistant structure, and facile fabrication; it provides an effective way of developing high-performance, low-cost AEMs for VFB applications.

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