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Exposed Surfaces on Shape-Controlled Ceria Nanoparticles Revealed through AC-TEM and Water–Gas Shift Reactivity

Authors

  • Shilpa Agarwal,

    1. Catalytic Processes and Materials, MESA+Institute for Nanotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (The Netherlands)
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  • Prof. Leon Lefferts,

    1. Catalytic Processes and Materials, MESA+Institute for Nanotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (The Netherlands)
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  • Dr. Barbara L. Mojet,

    1. Catalytic Processes and Materials, MESA+Institute for Nanotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (The Netherlands)
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  • Dr. D. A. J. Michel Ligthart,

    1. Schuit Institute of Catalysis, Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (The Netherlands)
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  • Prof. Emiel J. M. Hensen,

    1. Schuit Institute of Catalysis, Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (The Netherlands)
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  • Dr. David R. G. Mitchell,

    1. Sasol Technology (Pty) Ltd. PO Box 1, Sasolburg, 1947 (South Africa)
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  • Willem J. Erasmus,

    1. Sasol Technology (Pty) Ltd. PO Box 1, Sasolburg, 1947 (South Africa)
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  • Dr. Bruce G. Anderson,

    1. Sasol Technology (Pty) Ltd. PO Box 1, Sasolburg, 1947 (South Africa)
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  • Dr. Ezra J. Olivier,

    1. Center for High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, 6031 (South Africa)
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  • Prof. Johannes H. Neethling,

    1. Center for High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, 6031 (South Africa)
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  • Prof. Abhaya K. Datye

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemical & Nuclear Engineering and Center for Micro-Engineered Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87109 (USA), Fax: (+1) 505-277-1024
    • Department of Chemical & Nuclear Engineering and Center for Micro-Engineered Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87109 (USA), Fax: (+1) 505-277-1024

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Abstract

Aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy and high-angle annular dark field imaging was used to investigate the surface structures and internal defects of CeO2 nanoparticles (octahedra, rods, and cubes). Further, their catalytic reactivity in the water–gas shift (WGS) reaction and the exposed surface sites by using FTIR spectroscopy were tested. Rods and octahedra expose stable (111) surfaces whereas cubes have primarily (100) facets. Rods also had internal voids and surface steps. The exposed planes are consistent with observed reactivity patterns, and the normalized WGS reactivity of octahedra and rods were similar, but the cubes were more reactive. In situ FTIR spectroscopy showed that rods and octahedra exhibit similar spectra for [BOND]OH groups and that carbonates and formates formed upon exposure to CO whereas for cubes clear differences were observed. These results provide definitive information on the nature of the exposed surfaces in these CeO2 nanostructures and their influence on the WGS reactivity.

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