Role of Additives in Formation of Solid–Electrolyte Interfaces on Carbon Electrodes and their Effect on High-Voltage Stability



The in situ modification of a lithium hexafluorophosphate-based electrolyte using a molybdenum oxide catalyst and small amount of water (1 vol %) yields hydrolysis products such as mono-, di-, and alkylfluorophosphates. The electrochemical stability of ultrahigh-purity, high-surface-area carbon electrodes derived from polyfurfuryl alcohol was tested using the modified electrolyte. Favorable modification of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the activated carbon electrode increased the cyclable electrochemical voltage window (4.8–1.2 V vs. Li/Li+). The chemical modification of the SEI layer induced by electrolyte additives was characterized by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.