Zr4+ Doping in Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Open Li+ Diffusion Paths through Structural Imperfection

Authors

  • Jae-Geun Kim,

    1. Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, North Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia)
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  • Dr. Min-Sik Park,

    1. Advanced Batteries Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Seongnam 463-816 (Republic of Korea)
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  • Dr. Soo Min Hwang,

    1. Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, North Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia)
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  • Prof. Yoon-Uk Heo,

    1. Research Facilities Center, Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Republic of Korea)
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  • Dr. Ting Liao,

    1. Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia)
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  • Dr. Ziqi Sun,

    1. Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, North Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia)
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  • Jong Hwan Park,

    1. Advanced Batteries Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Seongnam 463-816 (Republic of Korea)
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  • Dr. Ki Jae Kim,

    1. Advanced Batteries Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Seongnam 463-816 (Republic of Korea)
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  • Dr. Goojin Jeong,

    Corresponding author
    1. Advanced Batteries Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Seongnam 463-816 (Republic of Korea)
    • Goojin Jeong, Advanced Batteries Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Seongnam 463-816 (Republic of Korea)

      Jung Ho Kim, Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, North Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia)

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  • Dr. Young-Jun Kim,

    1. Advanced Batteries Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Seongnam 463-816 (Republic of Korea)
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  • Prof. Jung Ho Kim,

    Corresponding author
    1. Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, North Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia)
    • Goojin Jeong, Advanced Batteries Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Seongnam 463-816 (Republic of Korea)

      Jung Ho Kim, Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, North Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia)

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  • Prof. Shi Xue Dou

    1. Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, North Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia)
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Abstract

One-dimensional nanomaterials have short Li+ diffusion paths and promising structural stability, which results in a long cycle life during Li+ insertion and extraction processes in lithium rechargeable batteries. In this study, we fabricated one-dimensional spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) nanofibers using an electrospinning technique and studied the Zr4+ doping effect on the lattice, electronic structure, and resultant electrochemical properties of Li-ion batteries (LIBs). Accommodating a small fraction of Zr4+ ions in the Ti4+ sites of the LTO structure gave rise to enhanced LIB performance, which was due to structural distortion through an increase in the average lattice constant and thereby enlarged Li+ diffusion paths rather than changes to the electronic structure. Insulating ZrO2 nanoparticles present between the LTO grains due to the low Zr4+ solubility had a negative effect on the Li+ extraction capacity, however. These results could provide key design elements for LTO anodes based on atomic level insights that can pave the way to an optimal protocol to achieve particular functionalities.

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