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Hydrogenation of Biofuels with Formic Acid over a Palladium-Based Ternary Catalyst with Two Types of Active Sites

Authors

  • Dr. Liang Wang,

    1. Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (PR China)
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  • Dr. Bingsen Zhang,

    1. Shenyang National Laboratory of Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang 110016 (PR China)
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  • Dr. Xiangju Meng,

    1. Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (PR China)
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  • Prof. Dang Sheng Su,

    1. Shenyang National Laboratory of Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang 110016 (PR China)
    2. Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin 14195 (Germany)
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  • Prof. Feng-Shou Xiao

    Corresponding author
    1. Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (PR China)
    • Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (PR China)===

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Abstract

A composite catalyst including palladium nanoparticles on titania (TiO2) and on nitrogen-modified porous carbon (Pd/TiO2@N[BOND]C) is synthesized from palladium salts, tetrabutyl titanate, and chitosan. N2 sorption isotherms show that the catalyst has a high BET surface area (229 m2 g−1) and large porosity. XPS and TEM characterization of the catalyst shows that palladium species with different chemical states are well dispersed across the TiO2 and nitrogen-modified porous carbon, respectively. The Pd/TiO2@N[BOND]C catalyst is very active and shows excellent stability towards hydrogenation of vanillin to 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol using formic acid as hydrogen source. This activity can be attributed to a synergistic effect between the Pd/TiO2 (a catalyst for dehydrogenation of formic acid) and Pd/N[BOND]C (a catalyst for hydrogenation of vanillin) sites.

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