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Keywords:

  • E Factors;
  • green chemistry;
  • microwave chemistry;
  • porphyrins;
  • solvent effects

Abstract

Water, under microwave irradiation and at a temperature of 473 K, reaches pressures above 16 bar, being capable to act as catalyst, without the use of organic solvents and oxidants, for meso-substituted porphyrin synthesis. Sustainability of the reaction is proved by E Factor=35 and EcoScale value of 50.5, the highest so far obtained for porphyrin synthesis. Methodology’s wide versatility is clearly demonstrated by the good yields obtained for both aryl and alkyl substituted porphyrins. These reaction conditions represent a huge development, not only by using very high concentrations, minimizing organic solvent usage, but also by eradicating toxic expensive solvents and oxidants.