ChemSusChem

Cover image for Vol. 1 Issue 5

May 23, 2008

Volume 1, Issue 5

Pages 369–470

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Essay
    6. Concept
    7. Communications
    8. Articles
    9. Interview
    10. Book Review
    11. Preview
    1. Cover Picture: Green Gasoline by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Solid Biomass Derived Compounds (ChemSusChem 5/2008) (page 369)

      Torren R. Carlson, Tushar P. Vispute and George W. Huber

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.200890012

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      The cover picture shows a scheme for the conversion of cellulose into gasoline-range aromatics by catalytic fast pyrolysis. Owing to its recalcitrance, there are currently no economical processes for the direct conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into useful chemicals and fuels. G. W. Huber et al. report in the Communication on page 397 ff. a process that they have developed which involves the thermal decomposition of cellulose to smaller volatile oxygenates as the first step. These biomass-derived species then enter the pores of the zeolite catalyst ZSM5, where they undergo a series of dehydration, decarbonylation, decarboxylation, isomerization, oligomerization, and dehydrogenation reactions that lead to aromatics, including naphthalene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and benzene, and by-products such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water. All this takes place at short residence times (less than 2 min) at 600 °C in a single reactor.

  2. Graphical Abstract

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Essay
    6. Concept
    7. Communications
    8. Articles
    9. Interview
    10. Book Review
    11. Preview
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  3. News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Essay
    6. Concept
    7. Communications
    8. Articles
    9. Interview
    10. Book Review
    11. Preview
  4. Essay

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Essay
    6. Concept
    7. Communications
    8. Articles
    9. Interview
    10. Book Review
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    1. Permanent Wood Sequestration: The Solution to the Global Carbon Dioxide Problem (pages 381–384)

      Fritz Scholz and Ulrich Hasse

      Version of Record online: 8 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.200800048

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      Seeing the woods for the trees: The global CO2 problem can only be solved by the introduction of a permanent carbon sink based on using natural photosynthesis. In the “wood growth and burial process”, humans produce biomass, especially wood, for it to be later removed from the global carbon cycle by burial under anaerobic conditions (e.g. on the bottom of emptied open pits). Moreover, the buried wood is a deposited good and potentially available for future use.

  5. Concept

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Essay
    6. Concept
    7. Communications
    8. Articles
    9. Interview
    10. Book Review
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    1. Electrochemical Processing of Carbon Dioxide (pages 385–391)

      Colin Oloman and Hui Li

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.200800015

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      Decreasing CO2by reduction: Electroreduction is an option for the conversion of CO2 into useful chemicals. Experimental data from a 100-A continuous reactor have been extrapolated to the conceptual design of processes for the conversion of CO2 into formate/formic acid on a commercial scale. The costs and return on investment for a range of values of the carbon credit accrued to such an operation have also been estimated.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Essay
    6. Concept
    7. Communications
    8. Articles
    9. Interview
    10. Book Review
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    1. On the Nature of the Active Site for the Oxidative Amination of Benzene to Aniline over NiO/ZrO2 as Cataloreactant (pages 393–396)

      Nora Hoffmann, Elke Löffler, Niklas A. Breuer and Martin Muhler

      Version of Record online: 11 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.200700130

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      Suspended amination: Semi-batch oxidative synthesis of aniline from benzene and ammonia was performed at atmospheric pressure using a NiO/ZrO2 cataloreactant in a microreactor flow setup. A Langmuir–Hinshelwood mechanism is suggested based on the surface reaction between adsorbed benzene- and ammonia-derived NHx species on metallic Ni surface sites.

    2. Green Gasoline by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Solid Biomass Derived Compounds (pages 397–400)

      Torren R. Carlson, Tushar P. Vispute and George W. Huber

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.200800018

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      A fuelling success: High-quality aromatic fuel additives can be produced directly from solid biomass feedstocks by catalytic fast pyrolysis in a single catalytic reactor at short residence times. High heating rates and catalyst-to-feed ratios are needed to ensure that pyrolized biomass compounds enter the pores of the ZSM5 catalyst and that thermal decomposition is avoided. Product selectivity is a function of the active site and pore structure of the catalyst.

    3. Fabrication of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with an Open-Circuit Photovoltage of 1 V (pages 401–403)

      Shinji Iwamoto, Yohei Sazanami, Masashi Inoue, Teruhisa Inoue, Takayuki Hoshi, Koichiro Shigaki, Masayoshi Kaneko and Akira Maenosono

      Version of Record online: 15 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.200700163

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      The big 1.0: A dye-sensitized solar cell that combines Mg-containing TiO2 electrodes and an organic photosensitizer 2-cyano-3-(4-N,N-diphenylaminophenyl)-trans-acrylic acid displays the highest open-circuit voltage reported so far (Voc=1.00 V). The electrodes have a negatively shifted conduction band, and the photosensitizer has a sufficiently negative LUMO energy level to inject the photoexited electrons into the electrode efficiently.

    4. Ligand-Free Palladium-Catalysed Direct Arylation of Heteroaromatics Using Low Catalyst Loadings (pages 404–407)

      Franc Požgan, Julien Roger and Henri Doucet

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.200700166

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      How low can Pd go? The direct arylation of heteroaryl compounds under very low loadings of Pd(OAc)2 as catalyst and in the absence of any added ligand proceeds in high yield. Turnover numbers up to 10 000 are observed for the coupling of activated aryl bromides with thiazole, thiophene or furan derivatives (see scheme; DMAc=N,N-dimethylacetamide).

    5. Tuneable Mesoporous Materials from α-D-Polysaccharides (pages 408–411)

      Robin J. White, Vitaly L. Budarin and James H. Clark

      Version of Record online: 24 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.200800012

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      Holey starch! Mesoporous materials with tuneable characteristics have been prepared from biomass-derived α-D-polysaccharides by a microwave-assisted strategy. Careful selection of the preparation temperature allows control of the crystallinity, particle morphology and textural properties of the resulting materials, leading to surface areas approaching 200 m2 g−1 and mesopore volumes over 0.6 cm3 g−1.

  7. Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Essay
    6. Concept
    7. Communications
    8. Articles
    9. Interview
    10. Book Review
    11. Preview
    1. Processing Conditions for the Formation of Spider Silk Microspheres (pages 413–416)

      Andreas Lammel, Martin Schwab, Ute Slotta, Gerhard Winter and Thomas Scheibel

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.200800030

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      Along came a spider: Spider silk proteins are well suited to create microspheres. Such silk microspheres meet the demanding requirements for the delivery of active ingredients such as drugs and pharmaceutical proteins. Control parameters for the formation of microspheres were determined to obtain silk spheres with defined diameters and size distributions.

    2. Liquid Alkanes with Targeted Molecular Weights from Biomass-Derived Carbohydrates (pages 417–424)

      Ryan M. West, Zhen Y. Liu, Maximilian Peter and James A. Dumesic

      Version of Record online: 3 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.200800001

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      Right on target: Transportation fuels can be directly produced from renewable biomass resources by converting carbohydrates into alkanes with targeted molecular weights, such as C8–C15 for jet-fuel applications. Targeted alkanes can be produced from a variety of biomass-derived carbonyl compounds, such as fructose, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, 5-methylfurfural, 2-furaldehyde, and acetone.

    3. Carbohydrates as Building Blocks of Privileged Ligands for Multiphasic Asymmetric Catalysis (pages 425–430)

      Vincenzo Benessere, Antonella De Roma and Francesco Ruffo

      Version of Record online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.200800013

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      A sweet privilege: Aimed at combining the high chemical performance of asymmetric catalysis with the increasing need of sustainability, Trost-like ligands were prepared that contain both coordinating functions and phase tags on a D-glucose scaffold. The ligands were then applied with Pd in multiphasic homogeneous catalysis with promising results.

    4. An Exceptionally DMSO-Tolerant Alcohol Dehydrogenase for the Stereoselective Reduction of Ketones (pages 431–436)

      Iván Lavandera, Alexander Kern, Martina Schaffenberger, Johannes Gross, Anton Glieder, Stefaan de Wildeman and Wolfgang Kroutil

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.200800032

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Suffering sulfur gladly: A novel short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase from Paracoccus pantotrophus (PpADH) has been identified and overexpressed in E. coli and then used to stereoselectively reduce ketones. The enzyme displays an excellent tolerance towards dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), with high conversions observed in the presence of 50 % v/v DMSO.

    5. Microporous Niobia–Silica Membrane with Very Low CO2 Permeability (pages 437–443)

      Vittorio Boffa, Johan E. ten Elshof, Andrei V. Petukhov and Dave H. A. Blank

      Version of Record online: 15 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.200700165

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Stayin′ in the membrane: A microporous composite membrane composed of niobia and silica shows an exceptionally low permeability for carbon dioxide despite its small size. Other small molecules such as hydrogen, methane, oxygen, and nitrogen can pass much more easily. Nb-bound hydroxy groups probably act as strong adsorption sites for carbon dioxide. Such a gas-selective ceramic membrane may be useful to separate CO2 from gas mixtures.

    6. High-Surface-Area TiO2 and TiN as Catalysts for the C[BOND]C Coupling of Alcohols and Ketones (pages 444–449)

      Anna Fischer, Philippe Makowski, Jens-Oliver Müller, Markus Antonietti, Arne Thomas and Frederic Goettmann

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.200800019

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      TiN can: As useful as palladium but 500 times less expensive, mesoporous TiO2 and TiN catalyse the alkylation of ketones with alcohols, a reaction that was previously limited to noble-metal-based catalysts (see picture). The TiN catalyst yields unsaturated compounds, while the oxide-based catalyst mainly yields saturated coupling products.

    7. The Material and Energy Basis of Rome: An Investigation of Direct and Indirect Resource Use through Material Flow, Energy and Footprint Methods (pages 450–462)

      Marco Ascione, Luigi Campanella, Francesco Cherubini, Silvia Bargigli and Sergio Ulgiati

      Version of Record online: 15 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.200700017

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      When in Rome, do as the Romans do: The results of a case study on Rome (Italy) show that an average citizen in one year (2002) uses directly or indirectly as much as 45 tons of abiotic materials (e.g. minerals, raw fuel, topsoil). In one year, each Roman releases 20 tons CO2, 50 kg CO, 36 kg NOx and 24 kg SO2, and generates about 450 kg of solid waste.

  8. Interview

    1. Top of page
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    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Essay
    6. Concept
    7. Communications
    8. Articles
    9. Interview
    10. Book Review
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    1. “Water Splitting Could Solve Our Energy Problem” (pages 463–465)

      Matthias Beller

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.200800044

  9. Book Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Essay
    6. Concept
    7. Communications
    8. Articles
    9. Interview
    10. Book Review
    11. Preview
  10. Preview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Essay
    6. Concept
    7. Communications
    8. Articles
    9. Interview
    10. Book Review
    11. Preview
    1. Preview: ChemSusChem 6/2008 (page 470)

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.200890015

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