ChemSusChem

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 11

November 18, 2011

Volume 4, Issue 11

Pages 1509–1695

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Reviews
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
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    1. Cover Picture: Simple and Efficient Iridium(III)-Catalyzed Water Oxidations (ChemSusChem 11/2011) (page 1509)

      Dr. Nicolas Marquet, Felix Gärtner, Dr. Sebastian Losse, Marga-Martina Pohl, Dr. Henrik Junge and Prof. Dr. Matthias Beller

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201190045

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      Back to basics: The development of catalytic reactions for energy technologies represents an important and highly actual topic in chemistry. In their Communication on page 1598, Matthias Beller and co-workers at the Leibniz Institute for Catalysis describe the use of easily available iridium precatalysts for water oxidation. Although the presented catalytic systems constitute simple iridium salts, they provide improved catalyst performance compared to most known, more complicated organometallic complexes.

  2. Graphical Abstract

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    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
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    1. Graphical Abstract: ChemSusChem 11/2011 (pages 1511–1518)

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201190046

  3. News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Reviews
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
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  4. Reviews

    1. Top of page
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    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Reviews
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    1. Durability of Sulfonated Aromatic Polymers for Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cells (pages 1526–1536)

      Dr. Hongying Hou, Prof. Dr. Maria Luisa Di Vona and Prof. Dr. Philippe Knauth

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000415

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      Long-lasting power: With the coming commercialization of proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), investigations into the durability and degradation of PEMs are more urgent (see picture; OCV=open-circuit voltage). In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to sulfonated aromatic polymers, which are inexpensive, easily available, and promising for fuel cell applications, and the subject of this review.

    2. Exploring Iron-based Multifunctional Catalysts for Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis: A Review (pages 1538–1556)

      Dr. Sònia Abelló and Dr. Daniel Montané

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100189

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      CO2determines outcome: Biomass or coal are considered as real alternatives to fossil fuels for the synthesis of high value-added hydrocarbons by using Fischer–Tropsch technology. Managing H2-deficient or CO2-rich syngas feeds using iron catalysts is a topic in the academic field that receives increasing interest. We focus on promising research activities that address the conversion of syngas to liquid fuels mediated by iron-based multifunctional materials.

  5. Communications

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    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Reviews
    6. Communications
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    1. An Acrylate-Polymer-Based Electrolyte Membrane for Alkaline Fuel Cell Applications (pages 1557–1560)

      Yanting Luo, Dr. Juchen Guo, Prof. Dr. Chunsheng Wang and Dr. Deryn Chu

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100287

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      Monomers rule: A novel bottom-up synthesis of an alkaline polymer electrolyte by applying mini-emulsion copolymerization is demonstrated. This synthesis approach can be used to control and tune conductivity and mechanical properties of the electrolyte. The processed electrolyte membrane exhibits superior power performance in alkaline fuel cells, which demonstrates the great potential of these membranes to be used in next generation energy conversion systems.

    2. A Dry Milling Approach for the Synthesis of Highly Active Nanoparticles Supported on Porous Materials (pages 1561–1565)

      Antonio Pineda, Alina M. Balu, Prof. Juan M. Campelo, Prof. Antonio A. Romero, Daniel Carmona, Dr. Francisco Balas, Prof. Jesús Santamaria and Dr. Rafael Luque

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100265

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      Shake it up: Exceptionally well-dispersed supported iron nanoparticles supported on a mesoporous Al-SBA-15 with an unprecedented activity can be prepared by using a simple and efficient dry-milling mechanochemical approach in a planetary ball mill. Extremely low iron loadings are sufficient to provide excellent activities in both, the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol and the alkylation of toluene with benzyl alcohol.

    3. Comparison of Cobalt-based Nanoparticles as Electrocatalysts for Water Oxidation (pages 1566–1569)

      Dr. Nam Hawn Chou, Dr. Philip N. Ross, Prof. Alexis T. Bell and Prof. T. Don Tilley

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100075

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      Water oxidation electrocatalysts: The controlled synthesis of ε-Co, CoO, and Co3O4 nanoparticles with nearly identical particle size and shape allows comparisons of the inherent catalytic properties of these materials in the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The nanoparticle electrodes exhibit relatively low overpotentials and very similar catalytic activities under basic conditions.

    4. High-Performance Zeolite Membranes on Inexpensive Large-Pore Supports: Highly Reproducible Synthesis using a Seed Paste (pages 1570–1573)

      Prof. Zhengbao Wang, Qinqin Ge, Jingsi Gao, Jia Shao, Chunjie Liu and Prof. Dr. Yushan Yan

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100252

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      Rubbing it in: Zeolite membranes with a high separation performance and reproducibility are synthesized on supports with large pores by rubbing a seed paste onto the surface of the support. A smooth seeded surface can be obtained by applying an additional shaving process. Depositing seed paste on the support surface is likely to open up a new route for seeding large-pores support, thus greatly decreasing the cost of zeolite membranes.

    5. High-Quality Diesel from Hexose- and Pentose-Derived Biomass Platform Molecules (pages 1574–1577)

      Prof. Dr. Avelino Corma, Olalla de la Torre and Dr. Michael Renz

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100296

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      Blending in: Lignocellulosic biomass contains hexoses and pentoses, and both of them may be utilized in second-generation biocarburants. A process that uses platform molecules derived from hexoses (5-methylfurfural) and from pentoses (2-methylfuran, or Sylvan) to produce a high quality diesel is presented. The diesel can be blended in any ratio with commercial diesel, and has a high cetane number and good flow properties.

    6. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Conversion of Levulinic Acid to Pyrrolidines by Reductive Amination (pages 1578–1581)

      Yao-Bing Huang, Jian-Jun Dai, Xiao-Jian Deng, Yan-Chao Qu, Prof. Qing-Xiang Guo and Prof. Yao Fu

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100344

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      Combo deal: An aqueous solution of levulinic acid (LA) and formic acid (FA) derived from biomass-based carbohydrates can be converted efficiently to pyrrolidines via a ruthenium catalyst without need for an energy-intensive separation of LA or an external H2 source. The ruthenium catalyst combines two processes: decomposition of FA to H2 and reductive amination of LA with an amine.

    7. A Three-Dimensional Highly Interconnected Composite Oxygen Reduction Reaction Electrocatalyst prepared from a Core–shell Precursor (pages 1582–1586)

      Yingjie Niu, Dr. Fengli Liang, Dr. Wei Zhou, Dr. Jaka Sunarso, Prof. Zhonghua Zhu and Prof. Zongping Shao

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100254

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      Getting intimate: A 3D interconnected Bi0.5Sr0.5FeO3−δ (BSF)–Ag electrocatalyst is prepared from a BSF–AgNO3 core–shell precursor in one step. The nanometer-sized Ag enhances the sintering process, enabling an optimum cathode microstructure and good cathode-to-electrolyte attachment upon firing at 850 °C. A solid-oxide fuel cell based on this cathode shows a near 100 % peak power density enhancement at 550 °C.

    8. In Situ One-Step Electrochemical Preparation of Graphene Oxide Nanosheet-Modified Electrodes for Biosensors (pages 1587–1591)

      Dr. Fanwu Zeng , Prof. Zhenhua Sun, Xiaoguang Sang, Prof. Dermot Diamond, Prof. King Tong Lau, Prof. Xiaoxia Liu and Prof. Dang Sheng Su

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100319

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      Mild, but strong enough: A green electrochemical method is presented to prepare graphene oxide nanosheet-modified electrodes in situ. The modified electrodes show a very good electrochemical catalytic activity to ascorbic acid. The as-prepared nanosheets, naturally fixed on the electrode, have a low degree of oxidation and can be easily reduced electrochemically in situ.

    9. Iron-Catalyzed Furfural Production in Biobased Biphasic Systems: From Pure Sugars to Direct Use of Crude Xylose Effluents as Feedstock (pages 1592–1594)

      Thorsten vom Stein, Philipp M. Grande, Prof. Dr. Walter Leitner and Dr. Pablo Domínguez de María

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100259

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      Working with real samples: Aqueous solutions of FeCl3–NaCl (or seawater) dehydrate xylose to afford furfural, which can extracted in situ into 2-MTHF as second phase. Furfural is successfully obtained when aqueous nonpurified xylose effluents directly from lignocellulose fractionation are tested.

    10. Exocellulase Activity of Cellobiohydrolase Immobilized on DNA-Wrapped Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (pages 1595–1597)

      Jin Hee Kim, Prof. Masakazu Kataoka, Akio Kumagai, Hiroto Nishijima, Prof. Yoshihiko Amano, Prof. Yoong Ahm Kim and Prof. Morinobu Endo

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100215

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      Wrapped around the finger: A hybrid-type biocatalyst suitable for extreme conditions is engineered by immobilizing cellulase on DNA-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The exocellulases are attached to the bare surface of the nanotubes, which are helically wrapped with DNA. Such spatially hybridized cellulases on DNA-dispersed individual SWNTs are stable in alkaline conditions and at high temperatures and exhibit a high initial enzymatic activity.

    11. Simple and Efficient Iridium(III)-Catalyzed Water Oxidations (pages 1598–1600)

      Dr. Nicolas Marquet, Felix Gärtner, Dr. Sebastian Losse, Marga-Martina Pohl, Dr. Henrik Junge and Prof. Dr. Matthias Beller

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100217

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      The complex made simple: Simple and commercially available iridium precursors are tested for their ability to promote water oxidation. The activity values of these precursors towards cerium(IV)-driven oxygen generation from water are comparable with values reported for more complicated iridium-based systems. A turnover frequency of 1700 h−1 is achieved with IrCl3.

    12. Molecular Design to Improve the Performance of Donor–π Acceptor Near-IR Organic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 1601–1605)

      Yan Hao, Prof. Xichuan Yang, Meizhen Zhou, Jiayan Cong, Xiuna Wang, Prof. Anders Hagfeldt and Prof. Licheng Sun

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100350

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      Near-dye experience: Long, flexible carbon chains in the lateral anchoring groups of the donor part of a donor–π acceptor organic dye increase the power conversion efficiency dramatically. This performance enhancement can be ascribed to the prevention of the formation of molecular aggregates on the semiconductor nanoparticles, resulting in a lower recombination rate between transported electrons and I3 ions. A cell based on the new dye, HY113, gives a maximum IPCE value of 93 % at 660 nm.

  6. Full Papers

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    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
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    1. Device Performance and Lifetime of Polymer:Fullerene Solar Cells with UV-Ozone-Irradiated Hole-Collecting Buffer Layers (pages 1607–1612)

      Seungsoo Lee, Sungho Nam, Hyena Lee, Dr. Hwajeong Kim and Prof. Youngkyoo Kim

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100192

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      Too much UV is bad for your cells: The performance and lifetime of polymer: fullerene solar cells was improved by UV-ozone (UVO) irradiation to the hole-collecting buffer layer (PEDOT:PSS) of polymer:fullerene solar cells. Small amounts of UV-ozone irradiation led to formation of a protective layer, preventing the degradation of active layers by attack of sulfonic acid groups in PSS.

    2. Peculiarities of β-Pinene Autoxidation (pages 1613–1621)

      Ulrich Neuenschwander, Emanuel Meier and Prof. Dr. Ive Hermans

      Article first published online: 7 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100266

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      Totally radical! The aerobic oxidation of the renewable β-pinene is not only a synthetically approach to valuable allylic compounds, it is also interesting from a fundamental mechanistic point of view (see scheme).

    3. Hydrogen Sorption from the Mg(NH2)2-KH System and Synthesis of an Amide–Imide Complex of KMg(NH)(NH2) (pages 1622–1628)

      Jianhui Wang, Dr. Guotao Wu, Yong Shen Chua, Jianping Guo, Prof. Zhitao Xiong, Dr. Yao Zhang, Dr. Mingxia Gao, Prof. Hongge Pan and Prof. Ping Chen

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100207

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      Uptake and release: The Mg(NH2)2-KH system can be used for reversible hydrogen storage. For non-isothermal dehydrogenation of [Mg(NH2)2][KH], K2Mg(NH2)4 and MgNH successively develop at lower temperatures and KMg(NH)(NH2) develops at higher temperatures. However, under isothermal and near-equilibrium conditions, dehydrogenation is a single-step process, leading to the formation of KMg(NH)(NH2) (see scheme).

    4. Understanding the Fast Pyrolysis of Lignin (pages 1629–1636)

      Pushkaraj R. Patwardhan, Robert C. Brown and Prof. Brent H. Shanks

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100133

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      Gone in a flash: Renewable alternatives for crude oil can be obtained from fast pyrolysis of lignin—a major component of biomass. However, many oligomeric compounds in the form of aerosols are produced during this process, which limit its utilization. This study reports the primary pyrolysis product distribution data of lignin and provides significant insights on the mechanism of oligomer formation.

    5. Solvent-Free, Microwave-Assisted N-Arylation of Indolines by using Low Palladium Catalyst Loadings (pages 1637–1642)

      Dr. Luca Basolo, Alice Bernasconi, Dr. Elena Borsini, Prof. Dr. Gianluigi Broggini and Prof. Dr. Egle M. Beccalli

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100098

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      Indulging in indolines: A series of substituted N-aryl indolines is prepared by a solvent-free, palladium-catalyzed procedure under microwave irradiation. Low catalyst loadings can be used, and a range of commercially available substrates is successfully converted. The reaction proceeds in good yields and in short reaction time with aryl bromides, chlorides, and iodides, also on 2-substituted indolines.

    6. Utilization of Greenhouse Gases through Dry Reforming: Screening of Nickel-Based Bimetallic Catalysts and Kinetic Studies (pages 1643–1653)

      Mun-Sing Fan, Dr. Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah and Prof. Dr. Subhash Bhatia

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100113

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      Screen, model, action! A series of bimetallic catalysts was studied for the utilization of greenhouse gases in syngas production. Nickel–cobalt bimetallic supported catalyst gave the best performance in terms of conversion, selectivity and stability. A Langmuir–Hinshelwood model was used for the reaction kinetics and the reaction parameters were determined as a function of temperature.

    7. Microwave-Assisted Partial Hydrogenation of Citral by using Ionic Liquid-Coated Porous Glass Catalysts (pages 1654–1661)

      Thomas Gallert, Martin Hahn, Dr. Martin Sellin, Dr. Christine Schmöger, Dr. Achim Stolle, Prof. Dr. Bernd Ondruschka, Dr. Thomas F. Keller and Prof. Dr. Klaus D. Jandt

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100154

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      Cats with Coats: The chemoselective hydrogenation of citral is an often-used model reaction to study the activity and selectivity of liquid-phase catalysts. Here, we use this reaction, under microwave heating, to investigate the effects of coating a palladium catalyst with ionic liquids. A porous glass with well-defined structural properties is used to support the catalysts.

    8. Remarkable Uptake of CO2 and CH4 by Graphene-Like Borocarbonitrides, BxCyNz (pages 1662–1670)

      Nitesh Kumar, K. S. Subrahmanyam, Piyush Chaturbedy, Dr. Kalyan Raidongia, Dr. Achutharao Govindaraj, Dr. Kailash P. S. S. Hembram, Dr. Abhishek K. Mishra, Prof. Umesh V. Waghmare and Prof. C. N. R. Rao

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100197

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      Can you feel the methane: Borocarbonitride samples show remarkable adsorption of CH4 and CO2 owing to their high surface areas. The adsorption of these gases increases exponentially with surface area.

    9. The Role of Amine Surface Density in Carbon Dioxide Adsorption on Functionalized Mixed Oxide Surfaces (pages 1671–1678)

      Pria D. Young and Dr. Justin M. Notestein

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100244

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      Lonely Amines: Isolated alkylamines are generated on SiO2 and Ti[BOND]SiO2 through a two-step process by grafting of a carbamate precursor onto SiO2 followed by deprotection using a mild thermal treatment to yield the final amine. In contrast to supported amines synthesized from an aminopropyl silane, these isolated amines do not exhibit cooperative uptake of CO2, but they do remain effective in the presence of Ti Lewis acid sites on the surface, opening possibilities for CO2 capture and conversion.

    10. The Effect of Zinc Addition on the Oxidation State of Cobalt in Co/ZrO2 Catalysts (pages 1679–1684)

      Dr. Vanessa M. Lebarbier, Dr. Ayman M. Karim, Dr. Mark H. Engelhard, Dr. Yu Wu, Prof. Bo-Qing Xu, Eric J. Petersen, Prof. Abhaya K. Datye and Prof. Yong Wang

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100240

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      State of oxidation leads the way: The effect of zinc addition to the catalyst 8Co/ZrO2 is examined in the steam reforming of ethanol. Higher ethanol conversion and lower CH4 selectivity are observed for the Co/ZrO2 catalyst promoted with Zn.

    11. Reducing the Cost of Production of Bimetallic Aluminium Catalysts for the Synthesis of Cyclic Carbonates (pages 1685–1693)

      Prof. Michael North and Dr. Carl Young

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100239

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      Foiled! Aluminium(salen) and aluminium(acen) catalysts are highly active in the synthesis of cyclic carbonates from epoxides and carbon dioxide at atmospheric pressure. The cost of the chemicals required to synthesize five such catalysts, which can be applied to batch reactions or in a gas-phase flow reactor, has been reduced by 68–93 % by optimization of the aluminium source, solvents, and reagents.

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      Preview: ChemSusChem 12/2011 (page 1695)

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201190048

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