ChemSusChem

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 4

April 18, 2011

Volume 4, Issue 4

Pages 417–551

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Minireview
    8. Concept
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
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    1. Cover Picture: Solar Water Splitting: Progress Using Hematite (α-Fe2O3) Photoelectrodes (ChemSusChem 4/2011) (page 417)

      Dr. Kevin Sivula, Florian Le Formal and Prof. Dr. Michael Grätzel

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201190014

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      The cover picture shows the geologic features in the Valley of Fire State Park (Nevada, USA, photo courtesy Frank Kovalchek), which exhibit a red-orange color due to the large concentration of iron oxides. The most stable iron oxide, α-Fe2O3 or hematite, is a promising material for sustainable hydrogen production via solar water splitting. The recent progress in understanding and overcoming the limitations presented by this material is reviewed by Sivula et al. on page 432 of this issue.

  2. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Minireview
    8. Concept
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    11. Preview
    1. You have free access to this content
  3. Graphical Abstract

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Minireview
    8. Concept
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    11. Preview
    1. Graphical Abstract: ChemSusChem 4/2011 (pages 421–425)

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201190015

  4. News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Minireview
    8. Concept
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    11. Preview
  5. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Minireview
    8. Concept
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    11. Preview
    1. Solar Water Splitting: Progress Using Hematite (α-Fe2O3) Photoelectrodes (pages 432–449)

      Dr. Kevin Sivula, Florian Le Formal and Prof. Dr. Michael Grätzel

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000416

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      Hematite (α-Fe2O3) is a promising material for solar water splitting. However, its performance as a photoanode has been crucially limited by poor optoelectronic properties. Recent advances in nanostructuring and surface chemistry have catalyzed a rapid advance in the performance of this promising solar energy conversion material. Here the latest efforts to increase understanding and improve the performace are comprehensively examined.

  6. Minireview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Minireview
    8. Concept
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    11. Preview
    1. Synthesis of 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural in Ionic Liquids: Paving the Way to Renewable Chemicals (pages 451–458)

      Tim Ståhlberg, Wenjing Fu, Prof. John M Woodley and Prof. Anders Riisager

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000374

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      All for one and furfural: Unique dissolving properties for crude biomass and high selectivity for 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) formation from hexose sugars make ionic liquids attractive reaction media for the production of chemicals from renewable resources. This Minireview surveys important progress made in catalyst development for the synthesis of HMF in ionic liquids and proposes future research directions in process technology.

  7. Concept

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Minireview
    8. Concept
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
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    1. Leveraging Gigawatt Potentials by Smart Heat-Pump Technologies Using Ionic Liquids (pages 459–463)

      Peter Wasserscheid and Matthias Seiler

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000191

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      Pump & Circumstance: The enormous energetic potential of low-caloric heat streams (40–80 °C) can be unlocked through a new generation of smart heat pumps operating with novel ionic liquid (IL)-based working pairs. The new technology is expected to allow significantly higher potential efficiencies, lower specific investments and broader possibilities to incorporate heat from renewable sources.

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Minireview
    8. Concept
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
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    1. Solvent-Free Conversion of Linalool to Methylcyclopentadiene Dimers: A Route To Renewable High-Density Fuels (pages 465–469)

      Dr. Heather A. Meylemans, Roxanne L. Quintana, Bryan R. Goldsmith and Dr. Benjamin G. Harvey

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100017

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      Neat biofuel in HD: Linalool, a linear terpene alcohol, can be selectively converted by ruthenium metathesis catalysts under solvent-free conditions to 1-methyl-cyclopent-2-enol and isobutylene in quantitative yield. Dehydration of the alcohol under mild conditions followed by low-temperature thermal dimerization yields methylcyclopentadiene dimer, which can be readily converted into a high-density fuel.

    2. Selective Sequestration of Strontium in Desmid Green Algae by Biogenic Co-precipitation with Barite (pages 470–473)

      Minna R. Krejci, Dr. Lydia Finney , Dr. Stefan Vogt and Prof. Derk Joester

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000448

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      Strontium sequestration by biomineralization of (Ba,Sr)SO4 in desmid green algae is examined quantitatively with synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy. An increase in Sr incorporation by more than two orders of magnitude in cells exposed to a modified culture medium may have implications for selective removal of 90Sr from contaminated nuclear waste or the environment.

    3. Activation of Hematite Nanorod Arrays for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting (pages 474–479)

      Dr. Rachel Morrish, Dr. Mahfujur Rahman, Prof. J. M. Don MacElroy and Prof. Colin A. Wolden

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100066

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      Hematite nanorod arrays are activated by proper control of annealing conditions. The 100-fold improvement in photocurrent is correlated to increased absorption and tin doping from the tin oxide-coated glass substrate. The low onset potential is attributed to a reduction in surface defects, while the morphology promotes tin diffusion and facilitates electron transport.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Minireview
    8. Concept
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    11. Preview
    1. Hydrothermal Decarboxylation and Hydrogenation of Fatty Acids over Pt/C (pages 481–486)

      Dr. Jie Fu, Prof. Xiuyang Lu and Prof. Phillip E. Savage

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000370

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      In hot water: The conversion of saturated and unsaturated alkanes, catalyzed by Pt/C in the absence of H2, in high-temperature water has been investigated (see figure). H2 is formed in situ during the hydrothermal catalytic process. This hydrothermal decarboxylation route represents a new path for using renewable resources to make molecules with value as liquid transportation fuels.

    2. Interconversion between Formic Acid and H2/CO2 using Rhodium and Ruthenium Catalysts for CO2 Fixation and H2 Storage (pages 487–493)

      Dr. Yuichiro Himeda, Satoru Miyazawa and Prof. Takuji Hirose

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000327

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      RuRhgebiet: The interconversion between formic acid and H2/CO2 using rhodium and ruthenium catalysts is demonstrated. In the hydrogenation of CO2/bicarbonate under basic conditions, catalytic activation is caused by an electronic substituent effect of oxyanions. In the decomposition of formic acid under acidic conditions, the rhodium catalyst induces highly efficient CO-free H2 evolution.

    3. A Fuel-Cell Reactor for the Direct Synthesis of Hydrogen Peroxide Alkaline Solutions from H2 and O2 (pages 494–501)

      Prof. Dr. Ichiro Yamanaka, Takeshi Onisawa, Toshikazu Hashimoto and Toru Murayama

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000263

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      Divided we stand: A divided fuel-cell system is effective for the selective formation of hydrogen peroxide (see picture). The theoretical concentration of H2O2 is 4.3 M, but the solution is diluted to below 4.0 M to prevent deposition of Na2O2 at the cathode.

    4. Efficient Acid–Base Bifunctional Catalysts for the Fixation of CO2 with Epoxides under Metal- and Solvent-Free Conditions (pages 502–507)

      Dr. Jian Sun, Dr. Lijun Han, Dr. Weiguo Cheng, Dr. Jinquan Wang, Prof. Xiangping Zhang and Prof. Suojiang Zhang

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000305

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      Smooth operator: Acid–base bifunctional catalysts with one or two Brønsted acidic sites in the cation part and a Lewis basic site in the anion part of the catalyst exhibit a high catalytic performance for the fixation of CO2 with epoxides, without co-solvent or co-catalyst under mild conditions. It was proposed that a synergistic effect of the Brønsted acidic site and the Lewis basic site on the epoxide ring were crucial for the reaction to proceed smoothly.

    5. Transformation of Cellulose into Biodegradable Alkyl Glycosides by Following Two Different Chemical Routes (pages 508–513)

      Dr. Nicolas Villandier and Prof. Avelino Corma

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000371

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      Sugar in disguise: Cellulose is transformed into short- and long-chain glycosides by following two different routes: by direct transformation and by transacetalation of methyl glucosides (see scheme). It is possible to obtain biodegradable surfactants from cellulose with good conversions and selectivities.

    6. High Turnover in a Photocatalytic System for Water Reduction to Produce Hydrogen Using a Ru, Rh, Ru Photoinitiated Electron Collector (pages 514–518)

      Dr. Shamindri M. Arachchige, Ryan Shaw, Travis A. White, Vimal Shenoy, Hei-Man Tsui and Prof. Karen J. Brewer

      Article first published online: 22 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000399

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      A robust photocatalytic system for the photochemical H2 production from H2O uses the single-component catalyst, [{(bpy)2Ru(dpp)}2RhBr2]5+. It functions at RT, in basic pH, and with significant H2 pressure, with its catalytic function being persistent for 50 h of photolysis. It provides 280 TONs in 19.5 h and 420 TONs in 50 h with a maximum ϕ=0.023 and an overall ϕ=0.014 for 19.5 h.

    7. Saccharification of Natural Lignocellulose Biomass and Polysaccharides by Highly Negatively Charged Heteropolyacids in Concentrated Aqueous Solution (pages 519–525)

      Dr. Yoshiyuki Ogasawara, Shintaro Itagaki, Dr. Kazuya Yamaguchi and Prof. Dr. Noritaka Mizuno

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100025

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      Easily solved: Highly negatively charged heteropolyacids, in particular H5BW12O40, efficiently promote the saccharification of polysaccharides such as cellulose, cellobiose, starch, xylan, and natural (non-purified) lignocellulose biomass into water-soluble saccharides in concentrated aqueous solutions, and the performance is much better than those of previously reported systems. Separation of saccharides and heteropolyacids is very easy, and the retrieved heteropolyacids can be used repeatedly without appreciable loss of the high performance.

    8. Cyclopentyl Methyl Ether: An Alternative Solvent for Palladium-Catalyzed Direct Arylation of Heteroaromatics (pages 526–534)

      Kassem Beydoun and Dr. Henri Doucet

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000405

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      Ethereal catalysis: Cyclopentyl methyl ether, which can be considered as a greener solvent than N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) or DMF, is advantageously employed for the palladium-catalyzed direct arylation of heteroaromatics (see scheme).

    9. Synthesis of Furfural from Xylose by Heterogeneous and Reusable Nafion Catalysts (pages 535–541)

      Dr. Edmond Lam, Ehsan Majid, Dr. Alfred C. W. Leung, Dr. Jonathan H. Chong, Dr. Khaled A. Mahmoud and Prof. Dr. John H. T. Luong

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100023

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      Fast, convenient, 117: Nafion 117 is demonstrated to be an efficient, reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the dehydration of xylose to furfural, a sustainable intermediate for fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and furan-based polymers. The high catalytic activity of Nafion 117 promotes shorter reaction times to limit the formation of side-products, which otherwise would lead to decreased yields.

    10. Selective Oxidation of Glycerol by Using a Hydrotalcite-Supported Platinum Catalyst under Atmospheric Oxygen Pressure in Water (pages 542–548)

      Akihiro Tsuji, Kasanneni Tirumala Venkateswara Rao, Shun Nishimura, Dr. Atsushi Takagaki and Prof. Kohki Ebitani

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000359

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      Highly talcited research: A hydrotalcite-supported platinum catalyst is found to be a highly active and selective heterogeneous catalyst for glycerol oxidation in pure water under atmospheric oxygen pressure, in high glycerol/metal molar ratios (up to 3125). The good results are due to precise control of the platinum metal concentration and the solid basicity of the support (see figure).

  10. Preview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Minireview
    8. Concept
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    11. Preview
    1. You have free access to this content
      Preview: ChemSusChem 5/2011 (page 551)

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201190017

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