ChemSusChem

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Special Issue: Energy Conversion and Storage

March 12, 2012

Volume 5, Issue 3

Pages 441–599

  1. Cover Picture

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      Cover Picture: Nanocarbon Composites and Hybrids in Sustainability: A Review (ChemSusChem 3/2012) (page 441)

      Dr. Juan J. Vilatela and Prof. Dr. Dominik Eder

      Version of Record online: 19 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201290009

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      The cover picture shows a scheme for a photoinduced charge transfer process though a metal oxide–graphene interface, and highlights a wide range of applications that benefit from synergistic effects in nanocarbon–inorganic hybrids. Such materials are discussed in a Review by Eder et al. on p. 456. This Review, and other papers in this issue, form part of a special issue of ChemSusChem dedicated to the “Chemistry of Energy Conversion and Storage". The papers are selected presentations from the 1st International Symposium on Chemistry of Energy Conversion, held in Berlin, Germany from February 27–March 2, 2011.

  2. Editorial

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      Editorial: Chemistry of Energy Conversion and Storage (pages 443–445)

      Dr. Dang Sheng Su 

      Version of Record online: 8 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200152

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      Energy is a big issue in our society, fueled by growing awareness of the finite resources of liquid fossil fuels and the noticeable changes in our climate resulting from its consumption. The general consensus is that there should be a well-considered roadmap towards a future energy scenario, with the replacement of fossil energy by renewable energies as the final goal. This “Chemistry of Energy Conversion and Storage” issue contains papers dealing with the chemistry behind renewable energies.

  3. Graphical Abstract

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  4. News

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  5. Reviews

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    1. Nanocarbon Composites and Hybrids in Sustainability: A Review (pages 456–478)

      Dr. Juan J. Vilatela and Prof. Dr. Dominik Eder

      Version of Record online: 2 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100536

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      Composites and hybrids go energy: The combination of graphene and carbon nanotubes into composites and, more recently, into the new class of hybrids creates new functional energy materials, whose synergistic effects are based on interfacial charge and heat transfer processes. In this Minireview, we provide a critical distinction between nanocomposites and nanocarbon hybrids with specific relation to sustainability as well as an overview of synthesis strategies.

    2. Carbon-Based Electrochemical Capacitors (pages 480–499)

      Prof. Arunabha Ghosh and Prof. Young Hee Lee

      Version of Record online: 2 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100645

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      Super power! The capacitance performance of highly porous activated carbons is described and the elucidation of the role of different pores is attempted (see picture). Elaborate discussions are also presented on the individual contributions from micro- and mesopores and their mutual dependence. An ideal electrode can be realized when a charge transportation pathway is obtained through the mesopores that channel ions to the micropores available on the surface.

    3. Towards Artificial Leaves for Solar Hydrogen and Fuels from Carbon Dioxide (pages 500–521)

      Dr. Samir Bensaid, Prof. Gabriele Centi, Prof. Edoardo Garrone, Prof. Siglinda Perathoner and Prof. Guido Saracco

      Version of Record online: 19 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100661

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      A match made in leaves: Recent progresses in the field of the design of artificial leaves, particularly from the system integration point of view, and of its key elements (catalysts, electrodes, membranes, sensitizers), particularly from the biomimetic perspective, are discussed. Emphasis is given to the challenge of producing liquid fuels from the reduction of CO2 using the protons/electrons produced from water oxidation.

  6. Communications

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    1. Enhanced Electrocatalytic Stability of Platinum Nanoparticles Supported on a Nitrogen-Doped Composite of Carbon Nanotubes and Mesoporous Titania under Oxygen Reduction Conditions (pages 523–525)

      Justus Masa, Dr. Ankur Bordoloi, Prof. Dr. Martin Muhler, Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schuhmann and Dr. Wei Xia

      Version of Record online: 29 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100643

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      Cheers for titania: An N-doped composite of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and mesoporous TiO2 is used as support for Pt nanoparticles applied in the oxygen reduction reaction. The composite Pt/N-TiO2-CNT shows a higher stability than Pt particles on carbon black or N-doped CNTs, as indicated by accelerated stress tests of up to 2000 cycles. The enhanced stability is attributed to strong interactions between TiO2 and Pt and a higher corrosion resistance of TiO2 as well as CNTs.

    2. Improved Li-Storage Performance of Li4Ti5O12 Coated with C[BOND]N Compounds Derived from Pyrolysis of Urea through a Low-Temperature Approach (pages 526–529)

      Huilin Pan, Liang Zhao, Prof. Yong-Sheng Hu, Prof. Hong Li and Prof. Liquan Chen

      Version of Record online: 6 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100629

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      The wonders of urea: The porous Li4Ti5O12 coated with C[BOND]N compound is prepared by pyrolysis of urea at a rather low temperature of 400 °C. The coated Li4Ti5O12 sample shows improved rate performance and excellent capacity retention after 2000 cycles at a current rate of 2C in a half cell.

    3. Hydrogen Evolution from Water/Alcohol Mixtures: Effective In Situ Generation of an Active Au/TiO2 catalyst (pages 530–533)

      Felix Gärtner, Dr. Sebastian Losse, Albert Boddien, Dr. Marga-Martina Pohl, Stefania Denurra, Dr. Henrik Junge and Prof. Matthias Beller

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100281

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      Gold standard: Au/TiO2 catalysts, easily prepared in situ from different Au precursors and TiO2, generate hydrogen from water/alcohol mixtures. Different alcohols, and even glucose, can serve as sacrificial reductants. The best system produces hydrogen on a liter scale, and is stable for more than two days. Deuteration studies show that proton reduction is likely the rate-limiting step in this reaction.

  7. Full Papers

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    1. Edge-Enriched, Porous Carbon-Based, High Energy Density Supercapacitors for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (pages 535–541)

      Dr. Yong Jung Kim, Dr. Cheol-Min Yang, Prof. Ki Chul Park, Prof. Katsumi Kaneko, Prof. Yoong Ahm Kim, Minoru Noguchi, Takeshi Fujino, Shigeki Oyama and Prof. Morinobu Endo

      Version of Record online: 29 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100511

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      Energy on edge: The new concept “molten potassium hydroxide-induced drilling effect” is introduced to achieve a high volumetric capacitance. The porous carbons produced by using this concept are edge-enriched. Edge sites contribute considerably to the capacitance and allow entrance to intraparticle pores. Therefore, these carbons are highly suitable electrode materials for high energy density supercapacitors for use in hybrid electric vehicles.

    2. Water Oxidation by Electrodeposited Cobalt Oxides—Role of Anions and Redox-Inert Cations in Structure and Function of the Amorphous Catalyst (pages 542–549)

      Marcel Risch, Katharina Klingan, Franziska Ringleb, Dr. Petko Chernev, Dr. Ivelina Zaharieva, Dr. Anna Fischer and Prof. Dr. Holger Dau

      Version of Record online: 9 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100574

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      Cobalt crowds crack it up: The catalytic activity of a cobalt-oxido film for water oxidation may be inversely proportional to atomic order, determined by the size of contiguous CoxOy clusters in the amorphous material. The redox-inert cations and anions in CoCat modulate redox properties and catalytic activity without modifying the basic structural motif of Co-oxido clusters.

    3. Nonregenerative Natural Resources in a Sustainable System of Energy Supply (pages 550–562)

      Prof. Alex M. Bradshaw and Prof. Thomas Hamacher

      Version of Record online: 20 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100563

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      Rare and precious: Following the lead taken by the EU in energy and climate policy, a shift from fossil fuels to regenerative energy will have occurred globally by the second half of this century. This will be accompanied by a strong demand for other exhaustible raw materials, in particular metals. The terms “sustainability”, “depletion” and “scarcity” are examined in the context of mineral supply and the situation with regard to some rare metals is discussed.

    4. Three-Dimensional Hierarchically Ordered Porous Carbons with Partially Graphitic Nanostructures for Electrochemical Capacitive Energy Storage (pages 563–571)

      Chun-Hsien Huang, Dr. Qiang Zhang, Tsu-Chin Chou, Cheng-Meng Chen, Dr. Dang Sheng Su and Prof. Ruey-An Doong

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100618

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      Open up! A three-dimensional hierarchically-ordered porous carbon with partially graphitic nanostructure has been designed, fabricated, and explored as a supercapacitor electrode (see picture). The macropores, interconnected porous structures, and meso/micropores are used as ion-buffering reservoirs, ion-transport channels, and charge-storage materials, respectively, and are expected to be advanced energy materials for high-rate supercapacitors.

    5. Enhanced Light Harvesting in Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Using a Topologically Ordered Gold Light-Trapping Layer (pages 572–576)

      Nailiang Yang, Qi Yuan, Prof. Jin Zhai, Prof. Tianxin Wei, Prof. Dan Wang and Prof. Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200024

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      It′s a trap! Dye-sensitized solar cells are promising low-cost, high-efficiency devices with a low environmental impact. One route towards improved cell efficiencies is through increased light harvesting. A counter electrode is modified to enhance the optical path length by plasmonic and reflective effects. The introduced gold layer increases the efficiency by 18 %, and is effective at both high and low levels of solar irradiation.

    6. New Insights from Microcalorimetry on the FeOx/CNT-Based Electrocatalysts Active in the Conversion of CO2 to Fuels (pages 577–586)

      Dr. Rosa Arrigo, Dr. Manfred E. Schuster, Dr. Sabine Wrabetz, Dr. Frank Girgsdies, Dr. Jean-Philippe Tessonnier, Prof. Gabriele Centi, Prof. Siglinda Perathoner, Dr. Dang Sheng Su and Prof. Dr. Robert Schlögl

      Version of Record online: 28 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100641

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      Nanotubes with an iron will: Iron oxide nanoparticles on N- CNTs show enhanced electrocatalytic CO2 reduction compared to oxidized CNTs. Two types of chemisorption sites have been determined by applying microcalorimetry: irreversible sites at the uncoordinated sites of the facets (top HRTEM image) and reversible sites at the hydrated oxide surface of the small nanoparticles (bottom STEM image). The reversible sites are correlated to the enhancement of the catalytic performance.

    7. Hydrogen Production from Glucose and Sorbitol by Sorption-Enhanced Steam Reforming: Challenges and Promises (pages 587–595)

      Dr. Li He and Prof. De Chen

      Version of Record online: 29 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100566

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      One-pot stew of sugars: The steam reforming of sugars, such as sorbitol and glucose, with an integrated CO2 capture using a calcium-based acceptor is demonstrated to give hydrogen of very high purity and improved yield in a single step, while the risk of coke formation compared to conventional steam reforming is reduced. However, there is a trade-off between hydrogen selectivity and yield. High temperatures lead to high hydrogen yields with relatively low purity.

  8. Preview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Reviews
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
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    1. You have free access to this content
      Preview: ChemSusChem 4/2012 (page 599)

      Version of Record online: 19 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201290012

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