ChemSusChem

Cover image for Vol. 5 Issue 5

Special Issue: Sustainability Research in Dalian

May 2012

Volume 5, Issue 5

Pages 801–955

  1. Cover Picture

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      Cover Picture: Engineering the Van der Waals Interaction in Cross-Linking-Free Hydroxide Exchange Membranes for Low Swelling and High Conductivity (ChemSusChem 5/2012) (page 801)

      Dr. Shuang Gu, Jason Skovgard and Prof. Dr. Yushan S. Yan

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201290018

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      Physical crosslinking: A typical trade-off between ionic conductivity and dimensional stability exists in hydroxides as well as in proton exchange membranes. In their Communication on page 843, Y. S. Yan et al. report a simple and effective strategy which utilizes direct tuning of van der Waals interactions among polymer chains to successfully reduce membrane-swelling and increase hydroxide-conductivity. This Communication, as well as the other papers in this issue of ChemSusChem, form part of a Special Issue in collaboration with the Dalian Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Editorial

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      The Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy (pages 803–804)

      Prof. Tao Zhang, Prof. Can Li and Prof. Xinhe Bao

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200275

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      The Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP), Chinese Academy of Sciences conducts fundamental and applied research towards chemistry and chemical engineering, with strong competence in the development of new technologies. The research in this special issue, containing 19 papers, features some of the DICP′s best work on sustainable energy, use of environmental resources, and advanced materials within the framework of the Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy (DNL).

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  4. News

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  5. Review

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    1. On the Configuration of Supercapacitors for Maximizing Electrochemical Performance (pages 818–841)

      Jintao Zhang and Prof. Dr. X. S. Zhao

      Version of Record online: 30 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100571

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      Charged and ready to go: In the past few years, significant breakthroughs in the development of supercapacitors as energy-storage devices is promoted by the emergence of innovative electrode materials (e.g., graphene) and driven by rapidly increasing demands for high-performance energy-storage devices (see picture; ASC/SSC=asymmetric/symmetric supercapacitor.

  6. Communications

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    1. Engineering the Van der Waals Interaction in Cross-Linking-Free Hydroxide Exchange Membranes for Low Swelling and High Conductivity (pages 843–848)

      Dr. Shuang Gu, Jason Skovgard and Prof. Dr. Yushan S. Yan

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200057

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      What a swell for hydroxides: The typical trade-off between swelling control and ion conductivity in ion-conducting polymer membranes is overcome by enhancement of van der Waals interactions among polymer chains. Using a quaternary phosphonium-functionalized polymer, the simple combination of high electron density of the polymer and large dipole moment of the functional group leads to low membrane swelling, high hydroxide conductivity, and excellent hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cell performance.

    2. A Hybrid Photocatalytic System Comprising ZnS as Light Harvester and an [Fe2S2] Hydrogenase Mimic as Hydrogen Evolution Catalyst (pages 849–853)

      Fuyu Wen , Dr. Xiuli Wang , Dr. Lei Huang , Dr. Guijun Ma , Jinhui Yang  and Prof. Can Li 

      Version of Record online: 26 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200190

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      Photo opportunity: A highly efficient and stable hybrid artificial photosynthetic H2 evolution system is assembled by using a semiconductor (ZnS) as light-harvester and an [Fe2S2] hydrogenase mimic ([(μ-SPh-4-NH2)2Fe2(CO)6]) as catalyst for H2 evolution. Photocatalytic H2 production is achieved with more than 2607 turnovers (based on [Fe2S2]) and an initial turnover frequency of 100 h−1 through the efficient transfer of photogenerated electrons from ZnS to the [Fe2S2] complex.

    3. Ruthenium-catalyzed [2+2+2] Cycloaddition of Diynes with Nitriles in Pure Water (pages 854–857)

      Fen Xu, Chunxiang Wang, Dr. Xincheng Li and Prof. Dr. Boshun Wan

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100744

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      One ring to bind them: An efficient method for synthesizing highly functionalized pyridine derivatives from diynes and nitriles is described. The reaction system involves Cp*Ru(COD)Cl/tppts-catalyzed [2+2+2] cycloaddition in pure water. Without being accompanied by diyne dimerization or trimerization byproducts, the desired products can be obtained in moderate to high yields.

    4. A Hard-Template Method for the Preparation of IrO2, and Its Performance in a Solid-Polymer-Electrolyte Water Electrolyzer (pages 858–861)

      Guangfu Li, Hongmei Yu, Dr. Wei Song, Meiling Dou, Yongkun Li, Prof. Zhigang Shao and Prof. Baolian Yi

      Version of Record online: 22 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100519

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      Morphological control by SBA-15: The performance of catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) depends strongly on their structural and morphological properties. An IrO2 nanomaterial with a morphology suitable for the OER is prepared by using a synthetic scheme involving a zeolite template, and shows enhanced activity and stability compared to IrO2 fabricated by the traditional Adams-fusion method.

    5. A Capsule Catalyst with a Zeolite Membrane Prepared by Direct Liquid Membrane Crystallization (pages 862–866)

      Dr. Chunlin Li, Prof. Hengyong Xu, Yuko Kido, Dr. Yoshiharu Yoneyama, Dr. Yoshifumi Suehiro and Prof. Noritatsu Tsubaki

      Version of Record online: 27 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100431

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      A sheltered existence: Direct liquid-membrane crystallization is used as a low-cost, low-waste, yet highly effective method to prepare a catalyst encapsulated by a H-β zeolite. Through vapor–liquid exchange, a continuous and sufficient, but not excessive supply of both water and template is the key part of this method.

    6. A High-Energy-Density Redox Flow Battery based on Zinc/Polyhalide Chemistry (pages 867–869)

      Liqun Zhang , Dr. Qinzhi Lai, Dr. Jianlu Zhang and Prof. Huamin Zhang

      Version of Record online: 19 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100530

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      Zn and the Art of Battery Development: A zinc/polyhalide redox flow battery employs Br/ClBr2− and Zn/Zn2+ redox couples in its positive and negative half-cells, respectively. The performance of the battery is evaluated by charge–discharge cycling tests and reveals a high energy efficiency of 81%, based on a Coulombic efficiency of 96% and voltage efficiency of 84%. The new battery technology can provide high performance and energy density at an acceptable cost.

  7. Full Papers

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    1. CO Oxidation at the Perimeters of an FeO/Pt(111) Interface and how Water Promotes the Activity: A First-Principles Study (pages 871–878)

      Xiang-Kui Gu, Runhai Ouyang, Dapeng Sun, Dr. Hai-Yan Su and Prof. Dr. Wei-Xue Li

      Version of Record online: 9 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100525

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      An active ensemble: The Pt[BOND]Fe cation ensemble hosted in the perimeters of FeO islands supported on Pt provides active sites for O2 and H2O activation free from CO poison. The Pt[BOND]Fe cation ensemble is highly active for CO oxidation, the activity of which is further promoted by water (see picture).

    2. Modification of n-Type Organic Semiconductor Performance of Perylene Diimides by Substitution in Different Positions: Two-Dimensional π-Stacking and Hydrogen Bonding (pages 879–887)

      Ming-Xing Zhang and Dr. Guang-Jiu Zhao

      Version of Record online: 9 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100510

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      Let's twist the fork: Perylene diimides (PDIs) and its derivatives are active n-type semiconducting materials widely used in organic electronic devices. This work elucidates different influences on electron-transfer mobility by substitution of PDIs in three different positions (bay-, ortho- and imide-positions) with chlorine. A fork-like structure is reported to be responsible for the large electron mobility of octachloro-PDIs with a twisted system.

    3. Exploring Aligned-Carbon-Nanotubes@Polyaniline Arrays on Household Al as Supercapacitors (pages 888–895)

      Dr. Fan Huang, Fengliu Lou and Prof. De Chen

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100553

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      Household—the basis for everything: Supercapacitors are designed and constructed with three-dimensional aligned carbon nanotubes coated by polyaniline (ACNT@PANI) on flexible and cost-effective household Al foils, in both aqueous and organic electrolytes (see figure). The regular pores of the arrays and the thin PANI film facilitated ion diffusion and charge transfer to improve the rate performance.

    4. High-Temperature Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cells Using an Ether-Containing Polybenzimidazole Membrane as Electrolyte (pages 896–900)

      Jin Li, Dr. Xiaojin Li, Yun Zhao, Wangting Lu, Prof. Zhigang Shao and Prof. Baolian Yi

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100725

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      The days of Nafion are over? The performance of a PBI/H3PO4 composite membrane fuel cell is studied. A maximum power density can be achieved at a relatively low Pt loading, and maximum current density is higher than 6.0 A cm−2. Additionally, no degradation of voltage is seen during stability testing of PBI/H3PO4 membranes at a constant current for 100 h (see figure).

    5. Catalytic Conversion of Inulin and Fructose into 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural by Lignosulfonic Acid in Ionic Liquids (pages 901–905)

      Prof. Haibo Xie, Prof. Zongbao K. Zhao and Qian Wang

      Version of Record online: 19 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100588

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      Paper power: The dissolution of lignosulfonic acid, which is a waste byproduct from the paper industry, in ionic liquids is efficient for the acid-catalyzed dehydration of fructose and inulin into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Very high yields of HMF from fructose can be achieved in only 10 min under mild conditions (see picture) and catalytic activity can be easily recovered.

    6. Coke Formation and Carbon Atom Economy of Methanol-to-Olefins Reaction (pages 906–912)

      Yingxu Wei, Cuiyu Yuan, Jinzhe Li, Shutao Xu, You Zhou, Jingrun Chen, Quanyi Wang, Lei Xu, Yue Qi, Prof. Qing Zhang and Prof. Zhongmin Liu

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100528

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      Coke goes to prison: Heterogeneous catalysis of methanol conversion is investigated through simultaneous measurements of volatile products and confined coke deposition. Complete and real-time reaction profiles are plotted for evaluation of carbon atom economy of the conversion. The deposited coke products have been determined, and a new species has been detected, which is responsible for fast deactivation of the catalyst and low carbon atom economy at low temperatures.

    7. Photocatalytic Water Reduction and Study of the Formation of FeIFe0 Species in Diiron Catalyst Sytems (pages 913–919)

      Xueqiang Li, Prof. Mei Wang, Lin Chen, Xiuna Wang, Jingfeng Dong and Prof. Licheng Sun

      Version of Record online: 8 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100490

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      Three gang up on hydrogen: Bioinspired diiron complexes, xanthene dyes, and triethylamine make up three-component systems that display high turnover numbers for the photoinduced hydrogen production. The quantum yield is determined for this catalytic system. A plausible mechanism for the formation of the FeIFe0 species is proposed, which involves the reduction of the diiron catalyst by the neutral alkyl radical photogenerated from triethylamine.

    8. Phase Change of Nickel Phosphide Catalysts in the Conversion of Cellulose into Sorbitol (pages 920–926)

      Dr. Pengfei Yang, Dr. Hirokazu Kobayashi, Dr. Kenji Hara and Prof. Atsushi Fukuoka

      Version of Record online: 30 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100498

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      Localized phosphide destroys cellulose: Carbon-supported amorphous nickel phosphide (ANP) allows the transformation of cellulose into sugar alcohols (especially sorbitol) to proceed efficiently. ANP is generated in situ from its crystalline form during the reaction. The high activity of the catalysts is attributed to the in situ-generated ANP phase. Modification of the carbon support improves the stability of the catalyst and reduces leaching of the catalyst.

    9. Mechanistic Investigation on the Formation and Dehydrogenation of Calcium Amidoborane Ammoniate (pages 927–931)

      Dr. Yong Shen Chua, Wen Li, Dr. Wendy J. Shaw, Prof. Guotao Wu, Dr. Tom Autrey, Prof. Zhitao Xiong, Prof. Ming Wah Wong and Prof. Ping Chen

      Version of Record online: 31 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100523

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      Amidoborane ammoniate formation is investigated by using isotopic labeling techniques. The formation of Ca(NH2BH3)22 NH3 is initiated by proton transfer from NH3BH3 to NH2 (amide), forming Ca(NH3)2+ and anionic [NH2BH3] groups. The dehydrogenation of the ammoniate, which occurs at lower temperatures, is a result of the participation of NH3 in the dehydrogenation process via the combination of (NH3)Hδ+⋅⋅⋅Hδ(NH2BH3).

    10. Selective Production of 1,2-Propylene Glycol from Jerusalem Artichoke Tuber using Ni–W2C/AC Catalysts (pages 932–938)

      Likun Zhou, Prof. Aiqin Wang, Changzhi Li, Mingyuan Zheng and Prof. Tao Zhang

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100545

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      Down to the roots with Ni: By using a combination of nickel and tungsten carbide supported on activated carbon, it is possible to convert Jerusalem artichoke tuber (JAT), a fructose-based biomass that can be used as a raw material without any pretreatment, selectively into 1,2-propylene glycol and ethylene glycol. A reasonable reaction pathway is suggested based on analysis of the product distribution under different reaction conditions and use of different feedstocks.

    11. Nickel-Promoted Tungsten Carbide Catalysts for Cellulose Conversion: Effect of Preparation Methods (pages 939–944)

      Dr. Na Ji, Dr. Mingyuan Zheng, Prof. Aiqin Wang, Prof. Tao Zhang and Prof. Jingguang G. Chen

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100575

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      Disappearing cellulose: Highly dispersed Ni-promoted W2C catalysts have been prepared by a post-impregnation method and found to be very active and selective for cellulose conversion into ethylene glycol (EG). Over Ni–(W2C/AC) catalyst, total cellulose conversion with a high EG yield has been achieved. The underlying reason for the enhanced catalytic performance is most probably the significantly higher dispersion of active sites on the catalyst.

    12. A Highly Stable Anode, Carbon-Free, Catalyst Support Based on Tungsten Trioxide Nanoclusters for Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (pages 945–951)

      Meiling Dou , Prof. Ming Hou, Huabing Zhang , Guangfu Li , Wangting Lu , Prof. Zidong Wei, Prof. Zhigang Shao and Prof. Baolian Yi

      Version of Record online: 25 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100706

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      Tungsten substitute in a game of fuel cells: Highly stable, carbon-free, WO3 nanoclusters are synthesized as Pt supports for anodic proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalysts. Electrochemical studies show that the Pt/WO3 catalyst exhibits a high and stable electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of hydrogen and could be considered as a promising alternative anode catalyst for PEMFCs.

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      Preview: ChemSusChem 6/2012 (page 955)

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201290021

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