ChemSusChem

Cover image for Vol. 5 Issue 9

September 2012

Volume 5, Issue 9

Pages 1641–1847

  1. Cover Pictures

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    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Minireviews
    6. Communications
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    1. Cover Picture: Improved Solvent Formulations for Efficient CO2 Absorption and Low-Temperature Desorption (ChemSusChem 9/2012) (page 1641)

      Dr. Francesco Barzagli, Prof. Massimo Di Vaira, Prof. Fabrizio Mani and Dr. Maurizio Peruzzini

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201290036

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      In their Full Paper on page 1724 ff., F. Mani et al. demonstrate that CO2 absorption and amine regeneration can be successfully carried out in a closed cycle process based on 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol and piperazine in 2-ethoxyethanol. These solvents, by virtue of their rather low desorption temperature and thermal and oxidative stability, may reduce the high operational costs of the conventional CO2 capture process based on aqueous amines. The pure CO2 recovered from the desorption step can be easily converted into an alkyl carbonate via the intermediate 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol carbamate and its reaction with an alcohol (methanol, ethanol, or ethylene glycol). The same reaction also occurs after replacing carbamate with the carbonate derivative of the protonated 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol.

    2. Inside Cover: In Situ Fuel Processing in a Microbial Fuel Cell (ChemSusChem 9/2012) (page 1642)

      Karnit Bahartan, Liron Amir, Dr. Alvaro Israel, Dr. Rachel G. Lichtenstein and Dr. Lital Alfonta

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201290037

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      The inside cover picture shows a microbial fuel cell system for the digest of starch from macro-algae as a source for glucose that is subsequently oxidized to produce electricity. This simple proof-of-concept demonstrated by the group of L. Alfonta et al. on page 1820 ff. may be used for the digest of other complex sugars without the need for the potential fuel to cross the cellular membrane of the microorganism nor for the microorganism to secrete digestive enzymes to the bulk of the solution. Moreover, it demonstrates the potential of macroalgae as a cost effective source of fuel, upon the digest of its starch, cellulose and hemicellulose content.

  2. Graphical Abstract

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    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Graphical Abstract
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    1. Graphical Abstract: ChemSusChem 9/2012 (pages 1643–1651)

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201290038

  3. News

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    4. News
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  4. Minireviews

    1. Top of page
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    4. News
    5. Minireviews
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    1. Development of Heterogeneous Catalysts for the Conversion of Levulinic Acid to γ-Valerolactone (pages 1657–1667)

      Dr. William R. H. Wright and Prof. Dr. Regina Palkovits

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200111

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      Processing wood and plants: Biomass-derived γ-valerolactone (GVL) can be used for manufacturing food, chemicals, and fuels. Numerous hydrogenation catalysts have been developed for the GVL synthesis, with heterogeneous systems arguably the most viable. We discuss current heterogeneous systems, with emphasis on catalyst innovation and development of integrated biomass processing.

    2. Oxidative Methane Upgrading (pages 1668–1686)

      Dr. Ceri Hammond, Sabrina Conrad and Prof. Dr. Ive Hermans

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200299

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      What a challenge! The oxidative coupling and partial oxidation of methane by economically feasible methods remain among the holy grails of chemistry. This Minireview highlights important developments and summarises the pertaining challenges that need to be tackled.

  5. Communications

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    4. News
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    1. In Situ NMR Characterization of Pyrolysis Oil during Accelerated Aging (pages 1687–1693)

      Haoxi Ben and Prof. Arthur J. Ragauskas

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200429

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      Coming of age: A method for investigating the accelerated aging of biomass pyrolysis oils is reported. The in situ NMR investigation, done by using quantitative 1H, 13C NMR and heteronuclear single-quantum correlation (HSQC)-NMR techniques, reveals the chemical structural changes of pyrolysis oil during the aging process, providing insight into the mechanism of aging process.

    2. Valorisation of Orange Peel Residues: Waste to Biochemicals and Nanoporous Materials (pages 1694–1697)

      Alina Mariana Balu, Dr. Vitaliy Budarin, Dr. Peter S. Shuttleworth, Lucie A. Pfaltzgraff, Prof. Keith Waldron, Dr. Rafael Luque and Prof. James H. Clark

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200381

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      Fruit for thought: Low-temperature microwave hydrothermal processing of orange peel not only enables the separation of the major components but also adds further value through the production of other high-value products: pectin and D-limonene, together with a rare form of mesoporous cellulose, are produced in a single step, without added acid. A process temperature change enables the conversion of D-limonene to α-terpineol.

    3. A Nitrogen-Doped Polyaniline Carbon with High Electrocatalytic Activity and Stability for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Fuel Cells (pages 1698–1702)

      Dr. Hexiang Zhong, Prof. Huamin Zhang, Zhuang Xu, Yongfu Tang and Jingxia Mao

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200178

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      PANI-based carbon cat: A low-cost nitrogen-doped carbon nanomaterial from polyaniline as fuel cell cathode electrocatalyst is prepared by chemical polymerization of aniline monomers, followed by pyrolysis in the presence of ammonia. The catalyst demonstrates high activity, with an onset potential comparable to, and a reduction current higher than, a commercial platinum catalyst.

    4. Copper(I)-Catalyzed Azide–Alkyne Cycloadditions in Microflow: Catalyst Activity, High-T Operation, and an Integrated Continuous Copper Scavenging Unit (pages 1703–1707)

      Alvaro Carlos Varas, Dr. Timothy Noël, Dr. Qi Wang and Prof. Dr. Volker Hessel

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200323

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      Avoiding the coppers: A continuous-flow synthesis for the CuI-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition reaction using [Cu(phenanthroline)(PPh3)2]NO3 as a homogeneous catalyst is developed (up to 92 % isolated yield). Elevated temperatures allow achieving full conversions and using lower catalyst loadings. Residual copper in the triazole compound is efficiently removed via an inline extraction process, employing aqueous EDTA as a copper scavenger.

    5. Sn-Doped Hydroxylated MgF2 Catalysts for the Fast and Selective Saccharification of Cellulose to Glucose (pages 1708–1711)

      Dr. Stefan Wuttke, Alina Negoi, Dr. Nicoleta Gheorghe, Dr. Victor Kuncser, Prof. Erhard Kemnitz, Prof. Vasile Parvulescu and Prof. Simona M. Coman

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200303

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      Tin, tailored, not solder, but cat: Doped hydroxylated fluorides, prepared by a modified sol–gel method, offer enhanced acidity and improved stability against water, and efficiency in the degradation of cellulose. These materials extend the portfolio of acid catalysts for fast and selective hydrolysis of biomass to glucose, which offers a feedstock for bioethanol production.

    6. 1D Coaxial Platinum/Titanium Nitride Nanotube Arrays with Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction: Towards Li–Air Batteries (pages 1712–1715)

      Shanmu Dong, Dr. Xiao Chen, Shan Wang, Lin Gu, Dr. Lixue Zhang, Xiaogang Wang, Dr. Xinhong Zhou, Dr. Zhihong Liu, Pengxian Han, Yulong Duan, Dr. Hongxia Xu, Jianhua Yao, Chuanjian Zhang, Kejun Zhang, Prof. Guanglei Cui and Prof. Liquan Chen

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200286

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      Cat on a hot TiN support: Coaxial Pt/TiN nanotube arrays are used to achieve a superior electrocatalytic activity of platinum towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Compared to a commercial Pt/C catalyst, the Pt/TiN NTA materials delivers a higher mass activity and specific activity for the ORR. Hence, these materials are useful as cathodes for hybrid electrolyte Li–air batteries, as demonstrated.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Minireviews
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
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    1. Mechanism of Tetralin Ring Opening and Contraction over Bifunctional Ir/SiO2-Al2O3 Catalysts (pages 1717–1723)

      Dr. Laurent Piccolo, Dr. Salim Nassreddine, Guy Toussaint and Dr. Christophe Geantet

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200080

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      This way or that way: The mechanism of tetralin hydroconversion over iridium supported on amorphous silica–alumina is shown to involve parallel acidic steps (green arrows) and metallic steps (violet arrows). The selectivity to ring opening/contraction products increases linearly with the acid/metal site ratio.

    2. Improved Solvent Formulations for Efficient CO2 Absorption and Low-Temperature Desorption (pages 1724–1731)

      Dr. Francesco Barzagli, Prof. Massimo Di Vaira, Prof. Fabrizio Mani and Dr. Maurizio Peruzzini

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200062

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      Clean up your flue: CO2 capture by 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP)/amine blends in organic solvents is investigated in a packed-bed reactor operating continuously, and the carbonated species in solution are analyzed by using in situ 13C NMR spectroscopy. Solid AMP carbamate and AMPH+ carbonate, structurally characterized by XRD, react with some alcohols to afford the corresponding alkyl carbonates.

    3. Metal-Free Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation: Intensification under Three-Phase Flow Conditions (pages 1732–1736)

      Christof Aellig, David Scholz and Prof. Dr. Ive Hermans

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200438

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      The aerobic oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols under the influence of a solid acid catalyst is presented. Process optimization and intensification through the use of a continuous three-phase flow reactor is demonstrated. Space–time yields are found to increase by two orders of magnitude with respect to batch experiments, along with additional gains in selectivity and a decrease of N2O formation.

    4. Continuous D-Fructose Dehydration to 5- Hydroxymethylfurfural Under Mild Conditions (pages 1737–1742)

      Christof Aellig and Prof. Dr. Ive Hermans

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200279

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      Keeping it low to rise high: The selective dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural is studied under single-phase conditions in the low boiling solvent dioxane at moderate temperatures in the presence of the solid-acid catalyst Amberlyst-15 and small amounts of DMSO. Under continuous flow conditions, a significantly improved space–time yield has been obtained compared to the batch case.

    5. Hydrothermal Reaction Kinetics and Pathways of Phenylalanine Alone and in Binary Mixtures (pages 1743–1757)

      Shujauddin Changi, Minghan Zhu and Phillip E. Savage

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200146

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      High Temperature Water: Several products are quantified and a reaction network is developed for phenylalanine alone and in binary mixtures. This study has several implications to bio-oil production during hydrothermal liquefaction of algae.

    6. New Nanocomposite Hybrid Inorganic–Organic Proton-Conducting Membranes Based on Functionalized Silica and PTFE (pages 1758–1766)

      Prof. Vito Di Noto, Dr. Matteo Piga, Dr. Guinevere A. Giffin, Dr. Enrico Negro, Dr. Claudio Furlan and Dr. Keti Vezzù

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200118

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      Fill the gap! New nanocomposite proton-exchange membranes consisting of functionalized nanoparticles of silica and silicone rubber embedded in polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) are prepared (see picture). The membranes have a highly compact morphology and good thermal and mechanical stability and conductivity above 100 °C.

    7. A Simple One-Pot Dehydration Process to Convert N-acetyl-D-glucosamine into a Nitrogen-Containing Compound, 3-acetamido-5-acetylfuran (pages 1767–1772)

      Khaled W. Omari, Linda Dodot and Prof. Francesca M. Kerton

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200113

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      Harbor not Haber Nitrogen: An amido-substituted furan can be obtained in up to 58 % yield through heating an amino-sugar, which can be obtained from fishery waste, in the presence of NaCl and boric acid. The product represents a structural motif within biologically active natural products.

    8. CuInSe2 Thin-Film Solar Cells with 7.72 % Efficiency Prepared via Direct Coating of a Metal Salts/Alcohol-Based Precursor Solution (pages 1773–1777)

      Dr. SeJin Ahn, Tae Hwa Son, Ara Cho, Dr. Jihye Gwak, Dr. Jae Ho Yun, Dr. Keeshik Shin, Dr. Seoung Kyu Ahn, Dr. Sang Hyun Park and Dr. KyungHoon Yoon

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200096

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      Alternative route available: A simple direct solution coating process for forming CuInSe2 thin films using a low-cost, environmentally friendly precursor solution prepared by mixing metal acetates, ethanol, and monoethylamine is demonstrated. The formation of a carbon impurity layer is largely avoided by using this technique. An initial power conversion efficiency of as high as 7.72 % is achieved by this route.

    9. Synthesis and Mechanical Properties of Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Materials from Lignin and Polysiloxanes (pages 1778–1786)

      Andreas K. W. Lippach, Ramona Krämer, Dr. Michael R. Hansen, Stephan Roos, Prof. Dr. Klaus Stöwe, Prof. Dr. Markus Stommel, Prof. Dr. Gerhard Wenz and Prof. Dr. Wilhelm F. Maier

      Article first published online: 13 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200095

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      Waste not, burn not: The synthesis of organic–inorganic hybrid materials from kraft lignin by the modification of the hydroxyl groups with 3-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane and 3-(triethoxysilyl)propylisocyanate is described. The best materials show better mechanical and thermal properties than those of lignin itself (see picture).

    10. Distillate-Range Products from Non-Oil-Based Sources by Catalytic Cascade Reactions (pages 1787–1792)

      Dr. Antoine Lacarriere, Julien Robin, Dr. Dariusz Świerczyński, Dr. Annie Finiels, Dr. François Fajula, Dr. Francis Luck and Prof. Vasile Hulea

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200092

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      Two catalysts are better than one: An original two-step process is efficiently catalyzed by functionalized mesoporous materials and is proposed as a potential route for converting light olefins into longer-chain hydrocarbons (see picture). Ni-AlMCM-41-catalyzed oligomerization is assisted by an acid-catalyzed step over H-MCM-41.

    11. Covalent Triazine Frameworks as Heterogeneous Catalysts for the Synthesis of Cyclic and Linear Carbonates from Carbon Dioxide and Epoxides (pages 1793–1799)

      Dr. Jérôme Roeser, Dr. Kamalakannan Kailasam and Prof. Dr. Arne Thomas

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200091

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      CO2 with COF: Triazine-based covalent organic frameworks are efficiently used as heterogeneous catalysts in the conversion of CO2 to cyclic and linear carbonates. The catalytic activity is influenced by small chemical and structural modifications of the synthesized materials.

    12. H2 Production by Renewables Photoreforming on Pt–Au/TiO2 Catalysts Activated by Reduction (pages 1800–1811)

      Dr. Alessandro Gallo , Dr. Tiziano Montini, Dr. Marcello Marelli, Dr. Alessandro Minguzzi, Dr. Valentina Gombac, Dr. Rinaldo Psaro, Prof. Paolo Fornasiero and Dr. Vladimiro Dal Santo

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200085

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      Hydrogen from renewables: Pt–Au/TiO2 bimetallic photocatalysts, supported on reduced titania, have been obtained by using a simple impregnation method. The synergic effects between bimetallic Pt–Au sites and Ti3+/O2− vacancy sites of TiO2 results in high activity for the photoreforming, under simulated sunlight, of ethanol and glycerol water solutions.

    13. Fructose Dehydration to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural over Solid Acid Catalysts in a Biphasic System (pages 1812–1819)

      Dr. Vitaly V. Ordomsky, Dr. John van der Schaaf, Prof. Dr. Jaap C. Schouten and Dr. T. Alexander Nijhuis

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200072

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      Fructose dehydration over heterogeneous acidic catalysts is studied. Lewis acidity leads to direct fructose condensation and humins are produced. Brønsted acidity results in selective 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation with subsequent rehydration into acids. Organic solvent addition increases selectivity exclusively over Brønsted acid catalysts due to suppression of the rehydration reaction of HMF and primary fructose condensation with HMF (see figure).

    14. In Situ Fuel Processing in a Microbial Fuel Cell (pages 1820–1825)

      Karnit Bahartan, Liron Amir, Dr. Alvaro Israel, Dr. Rachel G. Lichtenstein and Dr. Lital Alfonta

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200063

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      Double trouble: For the first time, it is demonstrated how a complex sugar from macroalgae can be digested and directly used to produce electricity by using a mixed culture of glucose oxidase and glucoamylase displayed on the surface of yeast (see picture).

    15. One-Pot Conversions of Lignocellulosic and Algal Biomass into Liquid Fuels (pages 1826–1833)

      Sudipta De, Dr. Saikat Dutta and Prof. Dr. Basudeb Saha

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200031

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      Biomass breakdown in one pot: The one-pot conversion of lignocellulosic and algal biomass into liquid fuel, 2,5-dimethylfuran, has been achieved by using a multicomponent catalytic system comprising [DMA]+[CH3SO3] (DMA=N,N-dimethylacetamide), Ru/C, and formic acid. A reaction route has been elucidated based on 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic data. Another promising biofuel has also been synthesized by using [DMA]+[CH3SO3] as catalyst.

    16. Renewable Nitrogen-Doped Hydrothermal Carbons Derived from Microalgae (pages 1834–1840)

      Camillo Falco, Dr. Marta Sevilla, Dr. Robin J. White, Regina Rothe and Dr. Maria-Magdalena Titirici

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200022

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      Keeping it in: Hydrothermal carbonization of microalgae/glucose mixtures is a green, sustainable, and economical route to synthesize nitrogen-doped carbons. The nitrogen contents are in the range of 7–8 wt %. The nitrogen is stored in stable heterocyclic aromatic structures, such as pyrroles, pyridines, and quaternary nitrogen species, which further translates in the preservation of nitrogen content when the material is pyrolyzed.

    17. sp3-Linked Amorphous Carbon with Sulfonic Acid Groups as a Heterogeneous Acid Catalyst (pages 1841–1846)

      Satoshi Suganuma, Dr. Kiyotaka Nakajima, Dr. Masaaki Kitano, Dr. Shigenobu Hayashi and Prof. Michikazu Hara

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200010

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      Sulfonation of partially carbonized polyvinyl chloride produces amorphous carbon consisting of small SO3H-bearing carbon sheets linked by sp3-based aliphatic hydrocarbons (see figure). This carbon material exhibits much higher catalytic performance in the hydrolysis of cellobiose than conventional heterogeneous Brønsted acid catalysts with SO3H groups, due to the fast diffusion of reactants and products enabled by a flexible carbon network.

  7. Preview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Minireviews
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    8. Preview
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      Preview: ChemSusChem 10/2012 (page 1847)

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201290040

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