ChemSusChem

Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue 4

April 2013

Volume 6, Issue 4

Pages 547–729

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Review
    8. Minireview
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
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      Cover Picture: One-Pot Conversion of Sugar and Sugar Polyols to n-Alkanes without C[BOND]C Dissociation over the Ir-ReOx/SiO2 Catalyst Combined with H-ZSM-5 (ChemSusChem 4/2013) (page 547)

      Dr. Kaiyou Chen, Dr. Masazumi Tamura, Dr. Zhenle Yuan, Dr. Yoshinao Nakagawa and Prof. Dr. Keiichi Tomishige

      Version of Record online: 8 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201390015

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      The cover image highlights the research carried out by the group of Keiichi Tomishige at Tohoku University in Japan, which is reported on page 613 ff. The image shows that the Ir-ReOx/SiO2 catalyst can be used to selectively cut off OH groups of biomass-derived compounds, such as sugar polyols, through hydrogenolysis just like the skin of pineapple can be cut off with a knife. Thus, n-hexane and n-pentane can be obtained from aqueous polyalcohol (sorbitol and xylitol) solutions at high yields in the presence of n-dodecane as co-solvent. The direct production of n-hexane from glucose or cellobiose can be achieved by using the same system. The catalyst can be reused simply by the removal of the n-dodecane phase, which contains the product alkane, and the addition of fresh n-dodecane and substrate.

  2. Cover Profile

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Review
    8. Minireview
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      One-Pot Conversion of Sugar and Sugar Polyols to n-Alkanes without C[BOND]C Dissociation over the Ir-ReOx/SiO2 Catalyst Combined with H-ZSM-5 (page 548)

      Dr. Kaiyou Chen, Dr. Masazumi Tamura, Dr. Zhenle Yuan, Dr. Yoshinao Nakagawa and Prof. Dr. Keiichi Tomishige

      Version of Record online: 8 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300231

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      “The first significant point is the highyield synthesis of bionaphtha.” This and more about the story behind the front cover research can be found on p. 548.

  3. Graphical Abstract

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Review
    8. Minireview
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
  4. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Review
    8. Minireview
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Masthead: ChemSusChem 4/2013 (page 557)

      Version of Record online: 8 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201390017

  5. News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Review
    8. Minireview
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
  6. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Review
    8. Minireview
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction using Non-Titanium Metal Oxides and Sulfides (pages 562–577)

      Dr. Sergio Navalón, Dr. Amarajothi Dhakshinamoorthy, Prof. Mercedes Álvaro and Prof. Hermenegildo Garcia

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200670

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      No need for TiO2: By far the most widely used photocatalyst both for the degradation of pollutants and in the field of renewable energies for producing solar fuels is TiO2. However, TiO2 has limitations when applied to photocatalytic CO2 reduction, particularly under visible light irradiation, and therefore, development of alternative materials seems appropriate. Here, we focus on alternatives with photocatalytic activity and describe the state of the art.

  7. Minireview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Review
    8. Minireview
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Formaldehyde: Catalytic Oxidation as a Promising Soft Way of Elimination (pages 578–592)

      Jhon Quiroz Torres, Dr. Sébastien Royer, Prof. Jean-Pierre Bellat, Dr. Jean-Marc Giraudon and Prof. Jean-François Lamonier

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200809

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      Technological formaldehyde elimination: Formaldehyde (HCHO) is known to contribute to indoor air pollution. Three technological approaches are proposed for HCHO emission reduction (see image). The aim of this Minireview is to put forward recent researches on HCHO elimination by heterogeneous catalysis, highlighting the advantages of this technology to efficiently convert this pollutant into harmless products with low energy consumption.

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Review
    8. Minireview
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Activation of Microcrystalline Cellulose in a CO2-Based Switchable System (pages 593–596)

      Dr. Qinghua Zhang, Nermin Simge Oztekin, Dr. Joël Barrault, Dr. Karine De Oliveira Vigier and Dr. François Jérôme

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200815

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      MCC Hammer: Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is dissolved and subsequently regenerated in a CO2-based switchable solvent system, drastically reducing its crystallinity index and thereby its recalcitrance to hydrolysis. Among the investigated systems, based on cheap, widely available chemicals, is one capable of dissolving up to 15 wt % MCC within 1 h at room temperature. Break it down!

    2. Catalytic Deoxydehydration of Glycols with Alcohol Reductants (pages 597–599)

      Camille Boucher-Jacobs and Dr. Kenneth M. Nicholas

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200781

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      Top shelf dehydration: Ammonium perrhenate catalysts combined with benzylic alcohol reductants are used for the efficient deoxydehydration of glycols to olefins. The olefin and aldehyde products can be easily separated and isolated. It is also demonstrated that the catalyst can be recovered and reused because of its low solubility in aromatic solvents.

    3. Ionic-Liquid-Catalyzed Efficient Transformation of γ-Valerolactone to Methyl 3-Pentenoate under Mild Conditions (pages 600–603)

      Fan-Xin Zeng, Hai-Feng Liu, Dr. Li Deng, Prof. Dr. Bing Liao, Hao Pang and Prof. Qing-Xiang Guo

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200841

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      Green nylons! Acidic ionic-liquid catalysis for the transformation of γ-valerolactone into methyl 3-pentenoate (M3P) is shown to be performed efficiently under mild conditions. M3P is obtained selectively from a reaction at 170 °C for 3.5 h in the presence of an acidic ionic liquid that has a low vapor pressure, high thermal stability, and excellent catalytic performance. A possible reaction pathway for this conversion is also presented.

    4. C[BOND]C Cross-Coupling of Primary and Secondary Benzylic Alcohols Using Supported Gold-Based Bimetallic Catalysts (pages 604–608)

      Xiang Liu, Ran-Sheng Ding, Lin He, Dr. Yong-Mei Liu, Prof. Dr. Yong Cao, Prof. Dr. He-Yong He and Prof. Kang-Nian Fan

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200804

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      Clean alcohol–alcohol cross-coupling: A clean and efficient one-pot direct C[BOND]C cross-coupling of equimolar amounts of primary and secondary alcohols by a facile hydrogen autotransfer pathway is achieved over a robust and easily recovered hydrotalcite-supported Au–Pd bimetallic catalyst system. A variety of primary and secondary alcohols have been selectively converted into the corresponding β-alkylated ketones in good yields.

    5. Pd-modified Au on Carbon as an Effective and Durable Catalyst for the Direct Oxidation of HMF to 2,5-Furandicarboxylic Acid (pages 609–612)

      Dr. Alberto Villa, Marco Schiavoni, Sebastiano Campisi, Dr. Gabriel M. Veith and Prof. Laura Prati

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200778

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      Mixed noblility: We show that the modification of a gold/carbon catalyst with platinum or palladium produces stable and recyclable catalysts for the selective oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA): the support and nanoparticle chemistry directly mediate the selective oxidation of terminal hydroxyl groups in bio-derived HMF. This finding is a significant advance over current conversion technology because of the technological importance of FDCA.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Review
    8. Minireview
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. One-Pot Conversion of Sugar and Sugar Polyols to n-Alkanes without C[BOND]C Dissociation over the Ir-ReOx/SiO2 Catalyst Combined with H-ZSM-5 (pages 613–621)

      Dr. Kaiyou Chen, Dr. Masazumi Tamura, Dr. Zhenle Yuan, Dr. Yoshinao Nakagawa and Prof. Dr. Keiichi Tomishige

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200940

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      Simply alkanes: A high yield (95 % C) of n-hexane is achieved from the one-pot conversion of cellobiose over Ir-ReOx/SiO2 combined with H-ZSM-5 in a two-phase system of water and n-dodecane.

    2. Potassium-Doped Zinc Oxide as Photocathode Material in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 622–629)

      Jie Bai, Xiaobao Xu, Dr. Ling Xu, Jin Cui, Dekang Huang, Prof. Wei Chen, Prof. Yibing Cheng, Prof. Yan Shen and Prof. Mingkui Wang

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200935

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      Special K: The microstructure of K-doped ZnO nanoparticles, and the dynamics of hole transportation and recombination upon their application in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells, are reported. Compared to the widely used benchmark material NiO, p-DSCs based on K-doped ZnO shows higher absorbed-photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies in the visible range. The transparency and fast hole diffusion are attractive properties for use in p-DSCs.

    3. Lipase-Catalyzed (Trans)esterification of 5-Hydroxy- methylfurfural and Separation from HMF Esters using Deep-Eutectic Solvents (pages 630–634)

      Monika Krystof, Dr. María Pérez-Sánchez and Dr. Pablo Domínguez de María

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200931

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      HMF ester portfolio: Lipase-catalyzed (trans)esterification of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) using different acyl donors (carboxylic acids and methyl and ethyl esters), mostly in solvent-free conditions, is investigated. The straightforward separation of unreacted HMF and HMF esters can be performed by using deep-eutectic solvents as separation agents.

    4. Dehydration of Xylose to Furfural over MCM-41-Supported Niobium-Oxide Catalysts (pages 635–642)

      Cristina García-Sancho, Dr. Irantzu Sádaba, Dr. Ramón Moreno-Tost, Prof. Josefa Mérida-Robles, Prof. José Santamaría-González, Dr. Manuel López-Granados and Prof. Pedro Maireles-Torres

      Version of Record online: 19 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200881

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      Sweet biomass: Niobium oxide is supported on MCM-41 silica to deliver catalysts that are active for the dehydration of xylose to furfural. The furfural yield is improved when NaCl is added to the reaction mixture. The catalysts can be recycled without an intermediate regeneration step and no significant leaching of niobium oxide is observed.

    5. Improvement of Catalytic Water Oxidation on MnOx Films by Heat Treatment (pages 643–651)

      Fengling Zhou, Dr. Alex Izgorodin, Dr. Rosalie K. Hocking, Dr. Vanessa Armel, Prof. Dr. Leone Spiccia and Prof. Dr. Douglas R. MacFarlane

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200849

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      One small step for manganese: A simple heat treatment at a low temperature (<120 °C) on electrodeposited MnOx films from aqueous electrolytes greatly improves the catalytic performance for water oxidation. This heat treatment involves a dehydration process and the formation of reduced Mn species without changing the morphology and bulk composition in the MnOx films.

    6. Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose to Ethylene Glycol over a Low-Cost Binary Catalyst of Raney Ni and Tungstic Acid (pages 652–658)

      Zhijun Tai, Junying Zhang, Prof. Aiqin Wang, Dr. Jifeng Pang, Dr. Mingyuan Zheng and Prof. Tao Zhang

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200842

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      Team work: A new low-cost and effective catalyst composed of Raney Ni and tungstic acid is developed for ethylene glycol production from cellulose. It gives rise to yields of ethylene glycol up to 65 % and can be reused more than 17 times, which shows the great potential of this new process for the industrial application.

    7. Supported Noble Metals on Hydrogen-Treated TiO2 Nanotube Arrays as Highly Ordered Electrodes for Fuel Cells (pages 659–666)

      Changkun Zhang, Prof. Hongmei Yu, Yongkun Li, Yuan Gao, Yun Zhao, Dr. Wei Song, Prof. Zhigang Shao and Prof. Baolian Yi

      Version of Record online: 28 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200828

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      Noble electrodes: Hydrogenated TiO2 nanotube arrays are used as catalyst supports on highly ordered nanostructured fuel cells. The supports are pretreated with Sn/Pd using a successive ion adsorption and reaction method, which facilitated Pt loading onto the supports. The electrode exhibits high durability after a second H2 treatment. In full fuel-cell testing, this highly ordered electrode with extra-low Pt loading generates 2.68 kW gPt−1.

    8. Sodium Hydrazinidoborane: A Chemical Hydrogen-Storage Material (pages 667–673)

      Romain Moury, Dr. Umit B. Demirci, Dr. Takayuki Ichikawa, Prof. Yaroslav Filinchuk, Dr. Rodica Chiriac, Dr. Arie van der Lee and Prof. Philippe Miele

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200800

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      Borane′s been busted: Sodium hydrazinidoborane (NaN2H3BH3) is a new boron-based material, derived from hydrazine borane (N2H4BH3). It has been mechano-synthesized and successfully characterized. Under prolonged heating, it is able to release almost 3 equiv of H2 at different kinetic rates, depending on temperature. This makes NaN2H3BH3 a potential candidate for use as a chemical hydrogen-storage material.

    9. Electricity Storage in Biofuels: Selective Electrocatalytic Reduction of Levulinic Acid to Valeric Acid or γ-Valerolactone (pages 674–686)

      Le Xin, Dr. Zhiyong Zhang, Ji Qi, David J. Chadderdon, Yang Qiu, Kayla M. Warsko and Prof. Dr. Wenzhen Li

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200765

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      Packing a punch! Electricity storage in biofuels by controlled electrocatalytic hydrogenation of levulinic acid to valeric acid or γ-valerolactone on a non-precious Pb electrode in a single electrocatalytic (flow) cell reactor with a high yield, Faradaic efficiency, and electricity storage efficiency, and a low electricity consumption is achieved (see picture). The applied potential and pH value can be used to accurately control the selectivity to valeric acid (4 e reduction) and γ-valerolactone (2 e reduction).

    10. Panchromatic Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on a Parallel Tandem Structure (pages 687–692)

      Na Zhou, Yueyong Yang, Dr. Xiaoming Huang, Dr. Huijue Wu, Dr. Yanhong Luo, Prof. Dongmei Li and Prof. Qingbo Meng

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200763

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      Panchromatic quantum dots: A simple and easily prepared tandem quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell, that is, a cell that utilizes more than one quantum-dot sensitizer, is used to broaden the usually narrow range of solar spectrum absorbed by solar cells. Using CdS/CdSe as the upper cell and PbS/CdS as the lower cell, a tandem cell is assembled that exhibits a remarkable photocurrent density and a good overall power-conversion efficiency.

    11. Synthesis of Isoidide through Epimerization of Isosorbide using Ruthenium on Carbon (pages 693–700)

      Dr. Jérôme Le Nôtre, Dr. Jacco van Haveren and Dr. Daan S. van Es

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200714

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      The thermodynamic scale: Isoidide, the most attractive isohexide isomer for polymer synthesis, is obtained as the major product through the epimerization of isosorbide with a ruthenium-on-carbon catalyst under a relatively low pressure of hydrogen. The catalyst can be recycled, and isomannide and the unreacted isosorbide can be reused in further experiments, making this process highly atom efficient.

    12. Emulsion-Templated Macroporous Carbons Synthesized By Hydrothermal Carbonization and their Application for the Enzymatic Oxidation of Glucose (pages 701–710)

      Dr. Nicolas Brun, Lise Edembe, Sébastien Gounel, Dr. Nicolas Mano and Dr. Magdalena M. Titirici

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200692

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      Baking biomass! Highly porous carbonaceous monoliths are designed and synthesized from a sustainable saccharide derivative. With furfural as the carbon precursor and using a carbonization method that is based on using a concentrated direct emulsion as a soft-template, a graphitized carbon framework was produced. As a proof of principle, these new carbons are successfully used as electrodes for enzymatic biofuel cells.

    13. Limitations for Current Production in Geobacter sulfurreducens Biofilms (pages 711–720)

      P. Sebastian Bonanni, Dr. Dan F. Bradley, Germán D. Schrott and Dr. Juan Pablo Busalmen

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200671

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      Hop, skip, and jump: A mathematical model that allows the identification of limiting steps for current production under several experimental conditions and in different layers of a biofilm is presented. A comparison of model outputs considering electron hopping and conduction through pili indicates that only electron hopping can account for some recent experimental results.

    14. Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization-based Recyclable Magnetic Acylation Reagents (pages 721–729)

      Quirin M. Kainz, Roland Linhardt, Dr. Pradip K. Maity, Prof. Dr. Paul R. Hanson and Prof. Dr. Oliver Reiser

      Version of Record online: 20 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200453

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      Do it magnetic: Amines are acylated utilizing N-hydroxysuccinimide ROMPgels (ROMP=ring-opening metathesis polymerization) grafted onto highly magnetic nanobeads. The products are isolated by operationally simple magnetic decantation in excellent yields and purities, and the ROMPgel is recycled more than five times without loss of activity.

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