ChemSusChem

Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 12

December 2014

Volume 7, Issue 12

Pages 3179–3547

  1. Cover Pictures

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Corrigendum
    6. Masthead
    7. News
    8. Review
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Cover Picture: Integrated, Cascading Enzyme-/Chemocatalytic Cellulose Conversion using Catalysts based on Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles (ChemSusChem 12/2014) (page 3179)

      Yi-Chun Lee, Dr. Saikat Dutta and Prof. Dr. Kevin C.-W. Wu

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402972

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      The Front Cover image depicts a unique cellulose deconstruction strategy developed by Kevin Wu and co-workers. Enzymatic cellulose deconstruction is achieved by using hydrolase enzymes hosted by mesoporous silica. Abundant sources of cellulose in Taiwan can be explored by using hydrolase enzyme immobilized on magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles. This strategy is capable of deconstructing cellulose to produce a versatile platform chemical that, through upgrading to liquid fuels and chemicals, is capable of fuelling the globe like the sun. How an integrated enzyme cascading chemocatalytic strategy can be used for a formidable cellulose deconstruction is one of the most interesting findings revealed. More details can be found in the Communication by Lee et al. on page 3241 (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402605), while more information about the research group is available in the Cover Profile (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402973).

    2. You have free access to this content
      Inside Cover: Directed Synthesis of Nanoporous Carbons from Task-Specific Ionic Liquid Precursors for the Adsorption of CO2 (ChemSusChem 12/2014) (page 3180)

      Dr. Shannon M. Mahurin, Dr. Pasquale F. Fulvio, Dr. Patrick C. Hillesheim, Kimberly M. Nelson, Gabriel M. Veith and Dr. Sheng Dai

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402852

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      The Inside Cover illustrates a series of task-specific ionic liquids used to synthesize porous carbon materials that are suitable for the post-combustion CO2 capture. The pore architecture and surface properties of the carbon adsorbent can be tailored by varying the structure of the ionic liquid precursor. As the linker in the bisimidazolium cation is varied, the porosity of the resulting carbon can be modified from purely microporous to hierarchical. The composition of the ionic liquid also generates porous carbon with nitrogen-containing functional groups for enhanced CO2 adsorption. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Mahurin et al. on page 3284 (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402338).

    3. You have free access to this content
      Inside Back Cover: Photoactive Nanocrystals by Low-Temperature Welding of Copper Sulfide Nanoparticles and Indium Sulfide Nanosheets (ChemSusChem 12/2014) (page 3549)

      Hui Min Lim, Jia Yi Tan, Dr. Sudip K. Batabyal, Dr. Shlomo Magdassi, Dr. Subodh G. Mhaisalkar and Dr. Lydia H. Wong

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403101

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      The Inside Back cover illustrates the coalescence of binary chalcogenide nanoparticles to photoactive ternary nanocrystals. When oppositely charged nanocrystals are mixed in room temperature, they coalesce to the final product by simple stirring. The coalescence of polycation-coated CuS nanoparticles and negatively charged In2S3 nanoplates to CuIn5S8 nanocrystals are driven by close contact of the particles due to electrostatic interactions. A photovoltaic device utilizing coalesced particles yields a power conversion efficiency of 1.9 %. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Lim et al. on page 3290 (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402333).

    4. You have free access to this content
      Back Cover: Nanorod and Nanoparticle Shells in Concentration Gradient Core–Shell Lithium Oxides for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries (ChemSusChem 12/2014) (page 3550)

      Sung-June Yoon, Prof. Seung-Taek Myung, Hyung-Joo Noh, Dr. Jun Lu, Dr. Khalil Amine and Prof. Yang-Kook Sun

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403193

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      The Back Cover image highlights the use of nanorods in the development of an innovative battery. These nanorods have a concentration gradient in its core–shell structure, which facilitates the transport of lithium ions and electrons and thus increases the resulting electrical conductivity. In addition, densely agglomerated nanorods in the shell region give rise to a high tap density with a reduced pore volume and surface area, which result in the outstanding electrochemical properties and high rate performance. Using the unique structure of these nanorods, we can move one step closer to the commercialization of lithium ion batteries with the large energy storage capacity and the safety required to power electric vehicles. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Yoon et al. on page 3295 (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402389).

  2. Cover Profile

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Corrigendum
    6. Masthead
    7. News
    8. Review
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Integrated, Cascading Enzyme-/Chemocatalytic Cellulose Conversion using Catalysts based on Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles (page 3181)

      Yi-Chun Lee, Dr. Saikat Dutta and Prof. Dr. Kevin C.-W. Wu

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402973

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      “An integrated enzymatic-chemocatalytic cellulose deconstruction strategy to obtain a platform chemical capable of fuelling the entire globe” This and more about the story behind the research that inspired the cover image can be found on page 3181 (10.1002/cssc.201402973). View the Front Cover on page 3179 (10.1002/cssc.201402972).

  3. Graphical Abstract

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Corrigendum
    6. Masthead
    7. News
    8. Review
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Graphical Abstract: ChemSusChem 12/2014 (pages 3182–3195)

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201490038

  4. Corrigendum

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Corrigendum
    6. Masthead
    7. News
    8. Review
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    1. You have free access to this content
      Corrigendum: Formation of a CdO Layer on CdS/ZnO Nanorod Arrays to Enhance their Photoelectrochemical Performance (page 3195)

      Thanh Khue Van, Long Quoc Pham, Do Yoon Kim, Jin You Zheng, Dokyoung Kim, Amol U. Pawar and Prof. Young Soo Kang

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403189

      This article corrects:

      Formation of a CdO Layer on CdS/ZnO Nanorod Arrays to Enhance their Photoelectrochemical Performance

      Vol. 7, Issue 12, 3505–3512, Article first published online: 16 OCT 2014

  5. Masthead

    1. Top of page
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    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Corrigendum
    6. Masthead
    7. News
    8. Review
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Masthead: ChemSusChem 12/2014 (pages 3196–3197)

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201490039

  6. News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Corrigendum
    6. Masthead
    7. News
    8. Review
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
  7. Review

    1. Top of page
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    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Corrigendum
    6. Masthead
    7. News
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    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks: Next-Generation Materials for Energy-Efficient Gas Separations (pages 3202–3240)

      Brian R. Pimentel, Aamena Parulkar, Er-kang Zhou, Prof. Nicholas A. Brunelli and Prof. Ryan P. Lively

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402647

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      Separating the ZIFs from the MOFs: Exquisite control of zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) structural properties has immense potential to lead to drastic reductions in energy consumed by industrial gas separation processes. We review the progress that has been made in synthesizing new ZIFs and applying these materials for advanced separation processes such as adsorption and membranes, identifying potential areas of opportunity.

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Corrigendum
    6. Masthead
    7. News
    8. Review
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Integrated, Cascading Enzyme-/Chemocatalytic Cellulose Conversion using Catalysts based on Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles (pages 3241–3246)

      Yi-Chun Lee, Dr. Saikat Dutta and Prof. Dr. Kevin C.-W. Wu

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402605

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      Cascading biomass breakdown: The physicochemical recalcitrance of cellulose limits its rapid and cost-effective degradation. An integrated enzymatic and chemocatalytic process for cascading deconstruction of cellulose into fructose and dehydration of fructose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is reported. The reactions are performed sequentially by using mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) catalysts loaded with Fe3O4 as solid supports for enzyme (cellulase, isomerase) immobilization and acid functionalization (SO3H).

    2. Control of Thickness and Chemical Properties of Atomic Layer Deposition Overcoats for Stabilizing Cu/γ-Al2O3 Catalysts (pages 3247–3251)

      Dr. Brandon J. O'Neill, Dr. Canan Sener, David H. K. Jackson, Prof. Thomas F. Kuech and Prof. James A. Dumesic

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402832

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      Don′t overdo it: In the liquid-phase hydrogenation of furfural, an important biorefining platform in biomass conversion, overcoating a Cu/γ-Al2O3 catalyst eliminates irreversible deactivation. Physical and chemical modification of stabilizing atomic layer deposition overcoats can reduce acidity and reduce the rate of deactivation during furfural hydrogenation, making such control an effective method to increase rate per gram of catalyst.

    3. AgTFSI as p-Type Dopant for Efficient and Stable Solid-State Dye-Sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells (pages 3252–3256)

      Bo Xu, Jing Huang, Prof. Hans Ågren, Prof. Lars Kloo, Prof. Anders Hagfeldt and Prof. Licheng Sun

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402678

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      Hole is other dopants: A silver-based salt, silver bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (AgTFSI), is an effective p-type dopant for the triarylamine-based, organic hole-transport material Spiro-MeOTAD. The doped material, when applied in solid-state, dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSCs) and perovskite solar cells (PSCs), improves the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of these devices by as much as 20 %, as compared to devices based on the commonly used dopant oxygen.

    4. Rapid Conversion of Sorbitol to Isosorbide in Hydrophobic Ionic Liquids under Microwave Irradiation (pages 3257–3259)

      Dr. Akio Kamimura, Kengo Murata, Yoshiki Tanaka, Tomoki Okagawa, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Dr. Kouji Kaiso and Dr. Makoto Yoshimoto

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402655

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      As easy as cooking instant food! Only 10 min of microwave irradiation efficiently converts sorbitol in hydrophobic ionic liquids to isosorbide. A catalytic amount of acid accelerates the reaction. Separation of ionic liquids and isosorbide is easily achieved by an extraction method and recovered ionic liquids can be used in several iterations of the reaction.

    5. Using Aqueous Ammonia in Hydroaminomethylation Reactions: Ruthenium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Tertiary Amines (pages 3260–3263)

      Lipeng Wu, Dr. Ivana Fleischer, Dr. Min Zhang, Dr. Qiang Liu, Prof. Dr. Robert Franke , Dr. Ralf Jackstell and Prof. Dr. Matthias Beller

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402626

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      Tertiary education: The direct synthesis of tertiary amines from ammonia and olefins is presented. Using a combination of Ru3(CO)12 and 2-phosphino-substituted imidazole as catalyst system allows for hydroaminomethylation reactions of bulk aliphatic and functionalized olefins. Tertiary amines are obtained in an atom-efficient domino process in moderate to good isolated yields (45–76 %) with excellent regioselectivities (n/iso up to 99:1).

    6. Inhibition of Ammonia Poisoning by Addition of Platinum to Ru/α-Al2O3 for Preferential CO Oxidation in Fuel Cells (pages 3264–3267)

      Dr. Katsutoshi Sato, Sho Yagi, Shuhei Zaitsu, Godai Kitayama, Yuto Kayada, Prof. Dr. Kentaro Teramura, Prof. Dr. Yusaku Takita and Prof. Dr. Katsutoshi Nagaoka

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402583

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      In conventional polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), supported ruthenium catalysts for preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) (Ru/α-Al2O3) lose most of their catalytic activity due to ruthenium oxidation. This activity loss is related to the presence of ammonia (NH3) in the reformate gas. Under the same conditions, Pt/Ru/α-Al2O3 (Pt/Ru=1:9 w/w) reduced at 1073 K exhibits excellent catalytic activity in the presence of excess ammonia.

    7. Phosphorus-based Bifunctional Organocatalysts for the Addition of Carbon Dioxide and Epoxides (pages 3268–3271)

      Dr. Thomas Werner and Hendrik Büttner

      Article first published online: 10 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402477

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      Bifunctional phosphonium salts catalyze efficiently the coupling reaction of CO2 and epoxides under mild and solvent-free reaction conditions. These organocatalysts can be easily obtained by alkylation of the corresponding phosphines with a halo alcohol. The hydrogen-bond donating alcohol moiety accelerates the catalytic reaction remarkably. Under optimized reaction conditions various epoxides are converted to the cyclic carbonates. This solvent-free protocol can be performed even on multigram scale.

    8. Thin-Film Silicon for Flexible Metal–Air Batteries (pages 3272–3274)

      Ahmed Garamoun, Dr. Markus B. Schubert and Prof. Dr. Jürgen H. Werner

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402463

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      Roll with it! Silicon is a promising candidate material for metal–air batteries because of its high theoretical energy density. Depositing thin films of doped amorphous silicon on ultrathin flexible foil substrates opens the door for flexible and rollable Si–air batteries with high specific and volumetric energy density. It is expected that avoiding self-discharge and enhancing specific capacity can be realized by using different electrolytes and modifying the silicon anodes.

    9. Silanediol-Catalyzed Carbon Dioxide Fixation (pages 3275–3278)

      Andrea M. Hardman-Baldwin and Prof. Dr. Anita E. Mattson

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402783

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      Life in the silane: Silanediols operate in conjunction with iodide to catalyze the incorporation of carbon dioxide into epoxides. The reaction system benefits from mild reaction conditions and the ability to prepare a wide array of cyclic carbonates in excellent yields. The excellent hydrogen-bonding abilities of silanediols render them useful metal-free catalysts in reactions of carbon dioxide and epoxides.

    10. Regio- and Enantioselective Friedel–Crafts Reactions of Indoles to Epoxides Catalyzed by Graphene Oxide: A Green Approach (pages 3279–3283)

      Dr. Maria Rosaria Acocella, Marco Mauro and Gaetano Guerra

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402770

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      Do not pass GO: Graphene oxide efficiently promotes highly regio- and enantioselective ring opening reactions of aromatic epoxides by addition of indoles, in solvent- and metal-free conditions. The Friedel–Crafts products were obtained with enantioselectivity up to 99 % ee. The complete inversion of stereochemistry indicates the occurrence of SN2-type reactions, which assures high level of enantioselectivity.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Corrigendum
    6. Masthead
    7. News
    8. Review
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Directed Synthesis of Nanoporous Carbons from Task-Specific Ionic Liquid Precursors for the Adsorption of CO2 (pages 3284–3289)

      Dr. Shannon M. Mahurin, Dr. Pasquale F. Fulvio, Dr. Patrick C. Hillesheim, Kimberly M. Nelson, Gabriel M. Veith and Dr. Sheng Dai

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402338

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      Regulating the network! A series of task-specific ionic liquids is used in a simple, one-step synthesis process to create nitrogen-doped porous carbon materials for CO2 adsorption. By varying the structure of the ionic liquid precursor, the pore architecture and surface functional groups of the carbon materials can be tuned, leading to adsorbents with high CO2 sorption capacities.

    2. Photoactive Nanocrystals by Low-Temperature Welding of Copper Sulfide Nanoparticles and Indium Sulfide Nanosheets (pages 3290–3294)

      Hui Min Lim, Jia Yi Tan, Dr. Sudip K. Batabyal, Dr. Shlomo Magdassi, Dr. Subodh G. Mhaisalkar and Dr. Lydia H. Wong

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402333

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      Newly welds: Coalescence between oppositely charged and structurally dissimilar precursor nanoparticles is driven by room-temperature stirring. CuIn5S8 nanocrystals are formed when positively charged copper sulfide (CuS) nanoparticles (stabilized by a polyelectrolyte: poly(diallydimethylammonium chloride); PDAC) are mixed with negatively charged indium sulfide nanoparticles (In2S3; without any polymeric stabilizer) at room temperature. CuIn5S8 is a good precursor material for solution-processed CuInSSe photovoltaics devices.

    3. Nanorod and Nanoparticle Shells in Concentration Gradient Core–Shell Lithium Oxides for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries (pages 3295–3303)

      Sung-June Yoon, Prof. Seung-Taek Myung, Hyung-Joo Noh, Dr. Jun Lu, Dr. Khalil Amine and Prof. Yang-Kook Sun

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402389

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      Shell values: The structure, electrochemistry, and thermal stability of concentration gradient core–shell (CGCS) particles for rechargeable lithium batteries are evaluated and compared. By varying the synthesis conditions, the morphology of the CGSC shell Li[Ni0.60Co0.15Mn0.25]O2 material can be varied from nanoparticles to nanorods. The particles with a nanorod shell exhibit substantially superior electrochemical and thermal properties compared to particles with a nanoparticle shell.

    4. 3 D Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Graphene Aerogels as Pt-Free Transparent Counter Electrodes for High Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 3304–3311)

      Jie Ma, Cheng Li, Fei Yu and Junhong Chen

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403062

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      Gelling well with solar cells: 3D single-walled carbon nanotube/graphene aerogel is synthesized and used as an alternative to platinized fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) for counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. The aerogel-based electrode shows high electrical conductivity and good electrocatalytic activity, resulting in a high power conversion efficiency (9.64 %) compared to Pt.

    5. Lignin-based Microporous Materials as Selective Adsorbents for Carbon Dioxide Separation (pages 3312–3318)

      Dr. Qing Bo Meng and Prof. Dr. Jens Weber

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402879

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      Craftswerk: A microporous polymer is developed by hypercrosslinking of organosolv lignin, a renewable resource, by Friedel–Crafts chemistry. Further pyrolysis of hypercrosslinked organosolv lignin yields shape-persistent materials with increased capacity for carbon dioxide adsorption. The selectivity towards CO2/N2 mixtures is investigated on the basis of ideal adsorption–solution theory (IAST), indicating excellent selectivity.

    6. New Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-Based Small Molecules Containing Alkoxyphenyl Side Chains for High Efficiency Solution-Processed Organic Solar Cells (pages 3319–3327)

      Zhengkun Du, Dr. Weichao Chen, Dr. Shuguang Wen, Dr. Shanlin Qiao, Qian Liu, Dan Ouyang, Dr. Ning Wang, Dr. Xichang Bao and Prof. Renqiang Yang

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402865

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      Taking it up a notch: A 2D small molecule based on the benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene (BDT) unit containing alkoxyphenyl (PO) side chains is synthesized for organic solar cells. By replacing the alkoxy side chain with an alkoxyphenyl group, the molecular aggregation of BDT-PO-DPP is effectively reduced. A small-molecule organic solar cell based on BDT-PO-DPP/PC61BM exhibits promising power conversion efficiency. DPP=diketopyrrolopyrrole.

    7. Synthesis of One-Dimensional Copper Sulfide Nanorods as High-Performance Anode in Lithium Ion Batteries (pages 3328–3333)

      Xue Li, Xinyi He, Chunmei Shi, Bo Liu, Yiyong Zhang, Shunqing Wu, Zizong Zhu and Jinbao Zhao

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402862

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      No template, no surfactant—still good? One-dimensional CuxS (x=1, 2) nanorods have been prepared by using a template- and surfactant-free solvent thermal method, which allows precise control of the composition of the highly crystalline CuxS. The nanorods can be used as anodes in lithium-ion batteries, giving rise to high rate capabilities and electrochemical stability and excellent capacity retention irrespective of the rate used.

    8. Aerobic Oxidation of Hydroxymethylfurfural and Furfural by Using Heterogeneous CoxOy–N@C Catalysts (pages 3334–3340)

      Dr. Jin Deng, Hai-Jie Song, Min-Shu Cui, Yi-Ping Du and Prof. Dr. Yao Fu

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402843

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      Happy Ester: The oxidative esterification of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural over CoxOy–N@C catalysts is performed using O2 as benign oxidant, obtaining the corresponding esters. High yield and selectivity of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid methyl and methyl 2-furoate are achieved under optimized conditions.

    9. Perfluorinated Ionomer-Enveloped Sulfur Cathodes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries (pages 3341–3346)

      Jongchan Song, Min-Ju Choo, Hyungjun Noh, Prof. Jung-Ki Park and Prof. Hee-Tak Kim

      Article first published online: 30 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402789

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      A salt and batteries: Perfluorinated ionomers such as Nafion are used in lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries because they are selectively permeable to lithium cations while passage of polysulfides (PSs) is restricted. We investigate which layer configuration is most effective for suppressing the PS shuttle effect and improving energy density and cycling stability. A Nafion layer on the skin of the sulfur cathode that does not restrict porosity is key to the high capacity and good cycling of our Li–S batteries.

    10. Sulfur-Doped Carbons Prepared from Eutectic Mixtures Containing Hydroxymethylthiophene as Metal-Free Oxygen Reduction Catalysts (pages 3347–3355)

      Nieves López-Salas, Francisco del Monte, Aitana Tamayo, José Luís G. Fierro, Antonio L. De Lacey, M. Luisa Ferrer and María C. Gutiérrez

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402753

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      Performance-enhancing treatment: A template-free approach based on the use of eutectic mixtures composed of 2-hydroxymethylthiophene and furfuryl alcohol has been designed for the preparation of hierarchical sulfur-doped carbons (see picture) in monolithic form. The performance of these carbons in the oxygen reduction reaction is described.

    11. Mesoporous TiN as a Noncarbon Support of Ag-Rich PtAg Nanoalloy Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Alkaline Media (pages 3356–3361)

      Dr. Zhiming Cui, Dr. Minghui Yang, Dr. Hao Chen, Mengtian Zhao and Prof. Francis J. DiSalvo

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402726

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      Cut out those carbons! Mesoporous TiN is demonstrated to be a very promising alternative to carbon support for the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media with Pt1Ag9 nanoalloy as catalyst. The TiN support exhibits significantly enhanced activity and stability for ORR in alkaline media, indicating that mesoporous TiN is a very promising material to replace carbon.

    12. Efficient Production and Separation of Biodegradable Surfactants from Cellulose in 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride (pages 3362–3373)

      Dr. Alberto V. Puga and Prof. Avelino Corma

      Article first published online: 10 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402722

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      Sugars on a slippery slope: Alkyl glycoside surfactants are obtained in high yields from cellulose by performing the transformation in an ionic liquid under acidic catalysis. Optimization of the process leads to excellent recovery of the ionic liquid (>99 %) and surfactant isolation (>70 % molar yield) by using only water as the separation solvent.

    13. Activity of Platinum/Carbon and Palladium/Carbon Catalysts Promoted by Ni2P in Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells (pages 3374–3381)

      Guoqiang Li, Dr. Ligang Feng, Jinfa Chang, Dr. Björn Wickman, Prof. Dr. Henrik Grönbeck, Prof. Dr. Changpeng Liu and Prof. Dr. Wei Xing

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402705

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      Leaning on C for support: The activity of Pt/C and Pd/C as catalysts for the oxidation of ethanol is greatly improved by using Ni2P as a promoter. The corresponding integrated direct ethanol fuel cells exhibit performance that is remarkably enhanced relative to that of commercial Pt/C and Pd/C catalysts; high activity and stability as well as high maximum power density are observed.

    14. Carbon Dioxide Adsorption in Amine-Functionalized Mixed-Ligand Metal–Organic Frameworks of UiO-66 Topology (pages 3382–3388)

      Jayashree Ethiraj, Dr. Elisa Albanese, Dr. Bartolomeo Civalleri, Dr. Jenny G. Vitillo, Dr. Francesca Bonino, Dr. Sachin Chavan, Greig C. Shearer, Prof. Karl Petter Lillerud and Prof. Silvia Bordiga

      Article first published online: 10 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402694

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      Catch it! A series of mixed-ligand UiO-66 metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are synthesized through two different methods and their carbon dioxide adsorption properties from 0 to 1 bar are investigated to clarify the role of amino loading on carbon dioxide uptake.

    15. A Gemini Quaternary Ammonium Poly (ether ether ketone) Anion-Exchange Membrane for Alkaline Fuel Cell: Design, Synthesis, and Properties (pages 3389–3395)

      Jiangju Si, Dr. Shanfu Lu, Xin Xu, Sikan Peng, Ruijie Xiu and Prof. Yan Xiang

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402664

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      PEEK and ye shall find: To reconcile the tradeoff between conductivity and dimensional stability in anion exchange membranes, a novel Gemini quaternary ammonium poly (ether ether ketone) (GQ-PEEK) membrane was successfully synthesized. The GQ-PEEK membranes exhibited enhanced ionic conductivity and fuel cell performance while undergoing only moderate swelling.

    16. Comparative Studies on Rigid π Linker-Based Organic Dyes: Structure–Property Relationships and Photovoltaic Performance (pages 3396–3406)

      Dr. Hairong Li, Teck Ming Koh, Dr. Yan Hao, Dr. Feng Zhou, Yuichiro Abe, Prof. Haibin Su, Prof. Anders Hagfeldt and Prof. Andrew C. Grimsdale

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402651

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      Sensitive solar cells: A series of six structurally correlated donor–π bridge–acceptor organic dyes are designed, synthesized, and applied as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Using the most widely studied donor (triarylamine) and cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b′]dithiophene or cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b′]dithiophene[2′,1′:4,5]thieno[2,3-d]thiophene as π spacers, their structure–property relationships are investigated in depth by photophysical techniques and theoretical calculations.

    17. Facile and Scalable Synthesis of Nanoporous Materials Based on Poly(ionic liquid)s (pages 3407–3412)

      Dr. Itxaso Azcune, Dr. Ignacio García, Dr. Pedro M. Carrasco, Dr. Aratz Genua, Dr. Marek Tanczyk, Dr. Manfred Jaschik, Prof. Krzysztof Warmuzinski, Germán Cabañero and Dr. Ibon Odriozola

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402593

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      Jagged little PIL: We present a very simple and convenient strategy to prepare nanoporous poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) in a sustainable and scalable manner. An ionic liquid (IL) analogous to the polymerizable IL is used as the solvent and porogen, which can be extracted after polymerization and recycled for further use. The resulting nanoporous materials have been investigated as CO2 sorbents.

    18. Dynamic Potential-Dependent Electron Transport Pathway Shifts in Anode Biofilms of Geobacter sulfurreducens (pages 3413–3419)

      Rachel A. Yoho, Dr. Sudeep C. Popat and Dr. César I. Torres

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402589

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      A small change in pathway: Biofilms of Geobacter sulfurreducens exhibit two pathways of electron transport to the anode that are used preferentially depending on the anode potential; this observation has implications not only on the understanding of electron transport in this model anode-respiring bacterium, but also has implications on interpretation of past and future electrochemical data.

    19. Hole-Transporting Small Molecules Based on Thiophene Cores for High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells (pages 3420–3425)

      Dr. Hairong Li, Kunwu Fu, Dr. Pablo P. Boix, Prof. Lydia H. Wong, Prof. Anders Hagfeldt, Prof. Michael Grätzel, Prof. Subodh G. Mhaisalkar and Prof. Andrew C. Grimsdale

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402587

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      Core of the material: Two new electron-rich molecules containing thiophene and bithiophene cores and arylamine side groups are described. When used as the hole-transporting material (HTM) in perovskite-based solar cell devices, good power conversion efficiencies under AM 1.5G solar simulation are obtained.

    20. Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic H2 Production by ZnxCd1−xS Modified with Earth-Abundant Nickel-Based Cocatalysts (pages 3426–3434)

      Jingrun Ran, Dr. Jun Zhang, Prof. Jiaguo Yu and Prof. Shi Zhang Qiao

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402574

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      Nickel in the mix: Zn0.8Cd0.2S has been loaded with various earth-abundant Ni species and applied in the photocatalytic production of H2 using visible light. Of all the species used, Ni(OH)2 shows a very high photocatalytic H2-production rate with a high quantum efficiency at 420 nm, which arises from the synergetic effect promoted by Ni(OH)2 and metallic Ni formed in situ. The role that the co-catalyst plays in the photocatalytic reaction is also investigated.

    21. Ordered Hierarchically Porous Carbon Codoped with Iron and Nitrogen as Electrocatalyst for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (pages 3435–3441)

      Chengwei Deng, Prof. Hexiang Zhong, Lan Yao, Dr. Sisi Liu, Dr. Zhuang Xu and Prof. Huamin Zhang

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402556

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      Electric results: A soft-templating strategy is introduced to develop an iron- and nitrogen-doped ordered hierarchal porous carbon. Using this strategy, it is possible to effectively control the pore structure and pore size distribution as well as the particle size and structure of the transition metals. The resulting doped carbon exhibits excellent catalytic performance for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    22. Screen-Printed Calcium–Birnessite Electrodes for Water Oxidation at Neutral pH and an “Electrochemical Harriman Series” (pages 3442–3451)

      Seung Y. Lee, Diego González-Flores, Jonas Ohms, Tim Trost, Prof. Dr. Holger Dau, Dr. Ivelina Zaharieva and Prof. Dr. Philipp Kurz

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402533

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      Ca-lling on oxides: Powders of calcium manganese oxide (Ca–birnessite) are screen printed onto conductive substrates that are used as anodes in water electrolysis. Screening of various transition-metal oxides for electrochemical water oxidation under “artificial leaf conditions” is possible and confirms the suitability of Ca–Mn-oxides for this task.

    23. Tailoring Dispersion and Aggregation of Au Nanoparticles in the BHJ Layer of Polymer Solar Cells: Plasmon Effects versus Electrical Effects (pages 3452–3458)

      Wanjung Kim, Bong Geun Cha, Jung Kyu Kim, Woonggi Kang, Eunchul Kim, Prof. Tae Kyu Ahn, Prof. Dong Hwan Wang, Dr. Qing Guo Du, Prof. Jeong Ho Cho, Prof. Jaeyun Kim and Prof. Jong Hyeok Park

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402511

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      Taking control of the dispersity: Here, we systematically control the Au nanoparticle (NP) dispersion behavior in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) active layer of polymer solar cells (PSCs). By controlling the van der Waals attraction among Au NPs, the dispersity of the NPs in the BHJ layer is controlled and the plasmonic and electrical effects of the Au NPs in the PSCs are investigated.

    24. Monitoring Solid Oxide CO2 Capture Sorbents in Action (pages 3459–3466)

      Christopher J. Keturakis, Fan Ni, Michelle Spicer, Dr. Michael G. Beaver, Prof. Hugo S. Caram and Prof. Israel E. Wachs

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402474

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      Tailorable, reversible solid oxide CO2 sorbents: Sodium-doped Al2O3 solid oxide sorbents are synthesized and monitored in action, during CO2 capture, with operando IR spectroscopy. A structure–sorption relationship is established between sorbent–CO2 surface complexes and the sorbent working capacity. Surface Al2O3 hydroxyl groups are responsible for low temperature reversible adsorption while small carbonate nanoparticles are responsible for high temperature adsorption.

    25. Complete Chemical Hydrolysis of Cellulose into Fermentable Sugars through Ionic Liquids and Antisolvent Pretreatments (pages 3467–3475)

      Silvia Morales-delaRosa, Dr. Jose M. Campos-Martin and Prof. Dr. Jose L. G. Fierro

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402466

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      Back to basics: A relatively simple methodology for efficiently deconstructing cellulose into monomeric glucose, which is easier to transform into a variety of platform molecules for the production of chemicals and fuels, is described.

    26. Phosphate-Modified Carbon Nanotubes in the Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Isopentanes (pages 3476–3482)

      Rui Huang, Dr. Hong Yang Liu, Dr. Bing Sen Zhang, Xiao Yan Sun, Prof. Chang Hai Liang, Prof. Dang Sheng Su, Bao Ning Zong and Jun Feng Rong

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402457

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      ODHing on phosphate: Phosphate-modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a novel catalyst for isopentane oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) show increased selectivity towards dehydrogenation compared to the conventional V-Mg-O catalysts. The catalytic properties during ODH are strongly dependent on amount of phosphate loading on the CNTs. Phosphorous oxides can not only inhibit the generation of electrophilic oxygen species but also cover selective sites (C[DOUBLE BOND]O groups) with increasing loading.

    27. General Approach for High-Power Li-Ion Batteries: Multiscale Lithographic Patterning of Electrodes (pages 3483–3490)

      Sinho Choi, Tae-Hee Kim, Jung-In Lee, Jieun Kim, Prof. Hyun-Kon Song and Prof. Soojin Park

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402448

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      Mix and pack of Patterned Si: LiFePO4 cathode and Li4Ti5O12 anode materials are combined with multiscale patterned current collectors to make high-performance Li-ion batteries. The patterned Si electrodes show significantly enhanced electrochemical performances, including a high rate capability and highly stable cycling. This simple strategy can be extended to other cathode and anode materials for practical Li-ion battery applications.

    28. Promotion of Selective Pathways in Isomerizing Functionalization of Plant Oils by Rigid Framework Substituents (pages 3491–3495)

      Josefine T. Christl, Philipp Roesle, Florian Stempfle, Prof. Dr. Gerhard Müller, Prof. Dr. Lucia Caporaso, Prof. Dr. Luigi Cavallo and Prof. Dr. Stefan Mecking

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402441

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      Get more from the oil: In a combined experimental and theoretical approach, enhanced selectivity in the isomerizing methoxycarbonylation of plant oils with an adamantyl-substituted diphosphine is revealed. The destabilization of transition states of unselective pathways by interaction of the substrates with the rigid adamantyl framework is decisive for the enhanced selectivity.

    29. Iron Oxide Encapsulated by Ruthenium Hydroxyapatite as Heterogeneous Catalyst for the Synthesis of 2,5-Diformylfuran (pages 3496–3504)

      Prof. Zehui Zhang, Ziliang Yuan, Dr. Dingguo Tang, Dr. Yongshen Ren, Dr. Kangle Lv and Dr. Bing Liu

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402402

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      Magnetic attraction: We have demonstrated an efficient and environmentally benign magnetic catalyst for the aerobic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF). A high DFF yield of 89.1 % and an HMF conversion of 100 % were obtained after 4 h at 90 °C.

    30. Formation of a CdO Layer on CdS/ZnO Nanorod Arrays to Enhance their Photoelectrochemical Performance (pages 3505–3512)

      Thanh Khue Van, Long Quoc Pham, Do Yoon Kim, Jin You Zheng, Dokyoung Kim, Amol U. Pawar and Prof. Young Soo Kang

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402365

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      High-performance photoelectrode: We describe a facile strategy for the preparation a CdO layer onto the CdS/ZnO nanorod array system, which is significantly beneficial to its photoelectrochemical performance. The unique structure and physiochemical properties of the formed CdO layer in this approach retard the photogenerated charge carrier recombination and photocorrosion of the CdS/ZnO electrode.

    31. High Shear Homogenization of Lignin to Nanolignin and Thermal Stability of Nanolignin-Polyvinyl Alcohol Blends (pages 3513–3520)

      Dr. Sandeep S. Nair, Sudhir Sharma, Dr. Yunqiao Pu, Qining Sun, Shaobo Pan, Dr. J. Y Zhu, Prof. Yulin Deng and Prof. Art J. Ragauskas

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402314

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      Lignin to nanolignin: Nanolignin particles are obtained by homogenizing kraft lignin particles using a high shear homogenizer. The nanolignin particles show no change in chemical structure, molecular weight distribution, and polydispersity compared to the kraft lignin particles. The nanolignin particles are well dispersed within the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix (see image) with minimal agglomeration to enhance the composite performance.

    32. Life Cycle Analysis within Pharmaceutical Process Optimization and Intensification: Case Study of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Production (pages 3521–3533)

      Dr. Denise Ott, Dr. Dana Kralisch, Ivana Denčić, Prof. Dr. Volker Hessel, Yosra Laribi, Philippe D. Perrichon, Charline Berguerand, Prof. Dr. Lioubov Kiwi-Minsker and Dr. Patrick Loeb

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402313

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      Taken as a whole: This study deals with holistic life-cycle-based process optimization and intensification of a pharmaceutical production process to identify bottlenecks, improve potentials, and determine new directions for active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) process development activities.

    33. A Catalytic Reactor for the Organocatalyzed Enantioselective Continuous Flow Alkylation of Aldehydes (pages 3534–3540)

      Dr. Riccardo Porta, Prof. Dr. Maurizio Benaglia, Dr. Alessandra Puglisi, Dr. Alessandro Mandoli, Dr. Andrea Gualandi and Prof. Pier Giorgio Cozzi

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402610

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      Flowing enantioselectivity: The organocatalyzed α-alkylation of aldehydes with 1,3-benzodithiolylium tetrafluoroborate is performed under continuous flow conditions; excellent enantioselectivities (up to 95 % ee) and high productivity (>3800 h−1) are obtained. Thus, a metal-free catalytic reactor can continuously produce enantiomerically enriched compounds.

    34. One-pot, One-step Synthesis of 2,5-Diformylfuran from Carbohydrates over Mo-Containing Keggin Heteropolyacids (pages 3541–3547)

      Yu Liu, Dr. Liangfang Zhu, Jinqiang Tang, Mingyang Liu, Ruodi Cheng and Prof. Changwei Hu

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402468

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      One-stop shop for DFF: 2,5-Diformylfuran (DFF) was directly produced from readily available carbohydrates in a one-pot, one-step method over Mo-containing Keggin heteropolyacids (HPAs) without any separation and purification of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A high DFF yield was obtained and the produced DFF could be separated from the resulting mixture by an adsorption–desorption method using activated carbon as the adsorbent and furfural as the desorbent.

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