ChemSusChem

Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 3

March 2014

Volume 7, Issue 3

Pages 651–940

  1. Cover Pictures

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Reviews
    8. Highlight
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Cover Picture: Towards a Sustainable Manufacture of Hierarchical Zeolites (ChemSusChem 3/2014) (page 651)

      Dr. Danny Verboekend and Prof. Javier Pérez-Ramírez

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201490009

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      The Cover picture illustrates the importance of considering the ecological and economical footprint associated with the manufacture of newly developed (catalytic) materials. These aspects, which ultimately determine the large-scale implementation of catalysts, usually receive little attention in the open literature. Prof. Javier Pérez-Ramírez and Dr. Danny Verboekend consider the case of hierarchical zeolites (HZ), which are superior heterogeneous catalysts for numerous established and emerging applications. Focusing on the use of demetallation treatments, they present approaches to prepare these advanced materials more efficiently by increasing reactor productivity, recycling waste streams, avoiding the combustion of organics, and minimizing work-up efforts. More detail is given in the Full Paper by Verboekend and Pérez-Ramírez on page 753, while more information about the research group is available in the Cover Profile (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400062).

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      Inside Cover Picture: Fast Pyrolysis of Wood for Biofuels: Spatiotemporally Resolved Diffuse Reflectance In situ Spectroscopy of Particles (ChemSusChem 3/2014) (page 652)

      Alex D. Paulsen, Blake R. Hough, C. Luke Williams, Andrew R. Teixeira, Prof. Daniel T. Schwartz, Prof. Jim Pfaendtner and Prof. Paul J. Dauenhauer

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201490010

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      The inside cover picture depicts diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of visible light and compositional characterization of terrestrial biomass during pyrolysis. Dauenhauer et al. developed this technique to address one of the major challenges of biomass pyrolysis for biofuels: the complexity of characterizing the integrated chemistries of lignocellulosic feedstocks. For over 50 years, research has focused on describing lignocellulosic conversion using multi-parameter reaction modeling, for which the number of parameters greatly exceeds the capability for experimental validation. This new technique spatiotemporally characterizes for the first time the composition of reacting particles at industrial conditions. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Dauenhauer et al. on page 765 (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301056).

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      Back Cover: The Catalytic Pathways of Hydrohalogenation over Metal-Free Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes (ChemSusChem 3/2014) (page 942)

      Kai Zhou, Dr. Bo Li, Prof. Qiang Zhang, Dr. Jia-Qi Huang, Gui-Li Tian, Jin-Chao Jia, Dr. Meng-Qiang Zhao, Prof. Guo-Hua Luo, Prof. Dang Sheng Su and Prof. Fei Wei

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201490014

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      The back cover picture shows how nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube catalysts afford excellent reactivity for acetylene hydrochlorination. The research team led by Professor Fei Wei at Tsinghua University and Prof. Dang Sheng Su at the Institute of Metal Research found green alternative mercury-free catalysts for hydrohalogenation. The quaternary nitrogen species exhibiting positive charges played a role analogous to metal cation complexes with vacancies and increased the probability of acetylene chemisorption and formation of acetylene-pseudo-metal complexes. More details can be found in the Communication by Zhou et al. on page 723 (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300793).

  2. Cover Profile

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Reviews
    8. Highlight
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Towards a Sustainable Manufacture of Hierarchical Zeolites (page 653)

      Dr. Danny Verboekend and Prof. Javier Pérez-Ramírez

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400062

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      “A big challenge will be to maintain and fortify the position of sustainability as a key pillar in the development of catalysts……” This and more about the story behind the research that inspired the cover image can be found on page 653 (10.1002/cssc.201400062). View the front cover on page 651 (10.1002/cssc.201400061).

  3. Graphical Abstract

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Reviews
    8. Highlight
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Graphical Abstract: ChemSusChem 3/2014 (pages 654–664)

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201490011

  4. Masthead

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    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
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    10. Full Papers
    1. Masthead: ChemSusChem 3/2014 (page 665)

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201490012

  5. News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Reviews
    8. Highlight
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
  6. Reviews

    1. Top of page
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    7. Reviews
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    10. Full Papers
    1. Always Look on the “Light” Side of Life: Sustainable Carbon Aerogels (pages 670–689)

      Dr. Robin J. White, Dr. Nicolas Brun, Dr. Vitaly L. Budarin, Prof. James H. Clark and Dr. Maria-Magdalena Titirici

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300961

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      Gelling with carbon: The production of carbon aerogels based on inexpensive and abundant precursors using environmentally friendly processes is an attractive subject in materials chemistry. This Review documents the latest developments in the developing field of carbonaceous aerogels prepared from biomass and biomass-derived precursors, highlighting exciting and innovative approaches to green and sustainable nanocarbon chemistry.

    2. Facet-Dependent Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2-Based Composites for Energy Conversion and Environmental Remediation (pages 690–719)

      Wee-Jun Ong, Lling-Lling Tan, Dr. Siang-Piao Chai, Dr. Siek-Ting Yong and Prof. Abdul Rahman Mohamed

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300924

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      Face the life of TiO2: Research attention has been recently directed increasingly towards the engineering of the surface structure of TiO2-based photocatalysts based on the most fundamental and atomic level, namely morphological control of {001} facets. Using this fine-tuning of the physicochemical properties, their outstanding structural and electronic properties can be harnessed for various energy- and environmental-related applications.

  7. Highlight

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Reviews
    8. Highlight
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Catalytic Amination of Biomass-Based Alcohols (pages 720–722)

      Dr. Marc Pera-Titus and Prof. Dr. Feng Shi

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301095

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      Can I borrow hydrogen? Direct amination of biomass-derived platform alcohols can be efficiently performed through the borrowing hydrogen mechanism, offering high activity and selectivity at low-to-moderate temperatures. Unlike nucleophilic substitution, the catalyst behaves as a tandem system involving the temporary removal of H2 from the reaction medium.

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
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    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Reviews
    8. Highlight
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. The Catalytic Pathways of Hydrohalogenation over Metal-Free Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes (pages 723–728)

      Kai Zhou, Dr. Bo Li, Prof. Qiang Zhang, Dr. Jia-Qi Huang, Gui-Li Tian, Jin-Chao Jia, Dr. Meng-Qiang Zhao, Prof. Guo-Hua Luo, Prof. Dang Sheng Su and Prof. Fei Wei

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300793

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      Hg, Mr. Bad Guy: Metal-free nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are employed as catalysts for C2H2 hydrochlorination; an essential reaction for poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) production currently done with toxic mercury catalysts. The catalysts combine high activity and excellent CH2CHCl selectivity. The quaternary nitrogen species play a role analogous to vacancies in metal cation complexes, and increase the probability of C2H2 chemisorption and the formation of a C2H2-pseudo-metal complex.

    2. Temperature- and Humidity-Controlled SAXS Analysis of Proton-Conductive Ionomer Membranes for Fuel Cells (pages 729–733)

      Takashi Mochizuki, Prof. Dr. Katsuyoshi Kakinuma, Prof. Dr. Makoto Uchida, Prof. Dr. Shigehito Deki, Prof. Dr. Masahiro Watanabe and Prof. Dr. Kenji Miyatake

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301322

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      Scanning channels: The morphological changes in perfluorosulfonic acid polymers and sulfonated aromatic block copolymers are investigated by using a newly designed temperature- and humidity-controlled small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique. For the perfluorinated ionomers, water molecules are preferentially incorporated into ionic clusters, forming ion channels. In contrast, for the aromatic ionomers, wetting leads to randomization of the ionic clusters.

    3. Alkylamine-Tethered Stable Metal–Organic Framework for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas (pages 734–737)

      Yingli Hu, Wolfgang M. Verdegaal, Prof. Dr. Shu-Hong Yu and Prof. Dr. Hai-Long Jiang

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301163

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      Amenable amines: Alkylamine molecules are post-synthetically tethered to the unsaturated CrIII centers in the metal–organic framework (MOF) MIL-101. The resultant MOFs show significantly enhanced CO2 capture as a result of the interaction between amine groups and CO2 molecules. With extraordinary stability, high CO2 uptake, ultrahigh CO2/N2 selectivity, and mild regeneration energy, MIL-101-diethylenetriamine holds exceptional promise for post-combustion CO2 capture and CO2/N2 separation.

    4. Ferrocene-Modified Carbon Nitride for Direct Oxidation of Benzene to Phenol with Visible Light (pages 738–742)

      Xiangju Ye, Yanjuan Cui and Prof. Xinchen Wang

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301128

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      We′ve ferrocene the light! Carbon nitride polymers are functionalized with ferrocene, combining the redox function of ferrocene with carbon nitride photocatalysis to construct a heterogeneous photo-Fenton system for green organocatalysis at neutral conditions. The improved exciton splitting and coupled photocatalytic performance of this system are applied in the direct synthesis of phenol from benzene under visible light irradiation.

    5. Propylene from Renewable Resources: Catalytic Conversion of Glycerol into Propylene (pages 743–747)

      Lei Yu, Jing Yuan, Qi Zhang, Dr. Yong-Mei Liu, Prof. Dr. He-Yong He, Prof. Kang-Nian Fan and Prof. Dr. Yong Cao

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301041

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      Renewable propylene: Glycerol, which is abundantly available as by-product of biodiesel production, can be efficiently and selectively converted into propylene by using an integrated process involving the formation of 1-propanol as intermediate (see Scheme), thus offering a promising opportunity to meet the growing worldwide propylene demand and supply shortage.

    6. Intercalation-Controlled Cyclodehydration of Sorbitol in Water over Layered-Niobium-Molybdate Solid Acid (pages 748–752)

      Yuya Morita, Shogo Furusato, Dr. Atsushi Takagaki, Dr. Shigenobu Hayashi, Prof. Dr. Ryuji Kikuchi and Prof. Dr.  S. Ted Oyama

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300946

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      The power of intercalation: The aqueous-phase dehydration of a sugar alcohol, sorbitol, to its monomolecular dehydrated intermediate, 1,4-sorbitan, with high selectivity is described for the use of a unique solid acid, HNbMoO6. The activity and selectivity to 1,4-sorbitan is superior to those obtained on other solid acids, including protonic zeolites, niobic acid, and ion-exchange resins. This improvement is attributable to the control intercalation selectivity.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Reviews
    8. Highlight
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Towards a Sustainable Manufacture of Hierarchical Zeolites (pages 753–764)

      Dr. Danny Verboekend and Prof. Javier Pérez-Ramírez

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301313

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      Superior­ and­ sustainable: Hierarchically structured zeolites are a superior type of catalyst compared to conventional zeolites. However, the sustainability of their preparation has remained neglected. The need for sustainable manufacturing of hierarchical zeolites is addressed and opportunities are substantiated in a case study using postsynthetic modifications.

    2. Fast Pyrolysis of Wood for Biofuels: Spatiotemporally Resolved Diffuse Reflectance In situ Spectroscopy of Particles (pages 765–776)

      Alex D. Paulsen, Blake R. Hough, C. Luke Williams, Andrew R. Teixeira, Prof. Daniel T. Schwartz, Prof. Jim Pfaendtner and Prof. Paul J. Dauenhauer

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301056

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      Resolving differences: A new technique, spatiotemporally resolved diffuse reflectance in situ spectroscopy of particles (STR-DRiSP; see picture), capable of measuring biomass composition during fast pyrolysis with high spatial (10 μm) and temporal (1 ms) resolution has been developed. This new technique has the potential to revolutionize how pyrolysis is monitored and enhance the ability to understand pyrolysis kinetics.

    3. Three-Dimensional Graphitized Carbon Nanovesicles for High-Performance Supercapacitors Based on Ionic Liquids (pages 777–784)

      Dr. Chengxin Peng, Dr. Zubiao Wen, Dr. Yao Qin, Prof. Lukas Schmidt-Mende, Prof. Chongzhong Li, Prof. Shihe Yang, Prof. Donglu Shi and Prof. Jinhu Yang

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301193

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      Carbon makes a capacitor super! Three-dimensional interconnected graphitized carbon nanovesicles (GCNVs) have been prepared through a low-cost, template-free method with quasi-mesopores (1.5–4.2 nm), ultrathin walls (three to four layers of graphene), and an unusually high specific surface area (2933 m2 g−1). This unique structure endows the GCNV-based supercapacitors with a superior performance.

    4. Sustainable Production of Green Feed from Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen (pages 785–794)

      Prof. Miron V. Landau, Dr. Roxana Vidruk and Prof. Moti Herskowitz

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301181

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      Drying out: A new iron-based spinel catalyst tested in a new configuration of fixed-bed reactors in series displays a dramatic increase in activity and productivity of C5+ hydrocarbons from CO2 in comparison with other published catalysts (see picture). The results can be considered as a breakthrough in one of the key steps required for the conversion of CO2 and water to liquid fuels and represents a feasible process.

    5. Joint Electrical, Photophysical, and Photovoltaic Studies on Truxene Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Impact of Arylamine Electron Donors (pages 795–803)

      Zhihui Wang, Dr. Mao Liang, He Wang, Prof. Peng Wang, Dr. Fangyi Cheng, Dr. Zhe Sun and Prof. Xue Song

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301155

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      Good electron donor: Incorporation of a hexahexyltruxene-substituted 4-(hexyloxy)-N-phenylaniline electron donor into donor–π–acceptor sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells is shown to lead to devices with improved conversion efficiency when compared with more widely used dihexyloxy-substituted triphenylamine electron donors.

    6. Sulfonated Graphene Oxide as Effective Catalyst for Conversion of 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural into Biofuels (pages 804–812)

      Dr. Margarida M. Antunes, Dr. Patrícia A. Russo, Dr. Paul V. Wiper, Jacinto M. Veiga, Dr. Martyn Pillinger, Dr. Luís Mafra, Prof. Dmitry V. Evtuguin, Prof. Nicola Pinna and Dr. Anabela A. Valente

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301149

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      Graphene on the scene: Sulfonated, partially reduced graphene oxide (S-RGO) exhibits a superior catalytic performance than other carbocatalysts and Amberlyst-15 in the acid-catalyzed conversion of 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural to products for biofuels. The beneficial effects are associated with the 2D structure of S-RGO and its acidic surface enriched with sulfur and oxygen functionalities.

    7. Green-Engineered All-Substrate Mesoporous TiO2 Photoanodes with Superior Light-Harvesting Structure and Performance (pages 813–821)

      Dr. Nima Parsi Benehkohal and Prof. George P. Demopoulos

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301139

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      The electrode less traveled: Successful electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of multicomponent TiO2 nanoparticulates with different sizes and morphologies is used to engineer a very robust bifunctional electrode structure. On application in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC), the electrode showed excellent light harvesting and a record-breaking photovoltaic performance for EPD-built DSSC devices of 8.59 %.

    8. In situ synthesis of Nanocomposite Membranes: Comprehensive Improvement Strategy for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (pages 822–828)

      Dr. Siyuan Rao, Dr. Ruijie Xiu, Dr. Jiangju Si, Prof. Shanfu Lu, Dr. Meng Yang and Prof. Yan Xiang

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301060

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      Nano-effect brings comprehensive improvement: Through in situ synthesis, cesium hydrogen salts of phosphotungstic acid–Nafion nanocomposite membranes are successfully fabricated and applied in direct methanol fuel cells with significant methanol-crossover suppression, substantial proton conductivity, and improved cell performance.

    9. Sol–Gel Synthesis of Aliovalent Vanadium-Doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathodes with Excellent Performance at High Temperatures (pages 829–834)

      Min Chul Kim, Dr. Kyung-Wan Nam, Enyuan Hu, Dr. Xiao-Qing Yang, Hyungsub Kim, Prof. Kisuk Kang, Dr. Vanchiappan Aravindan, Dr. Woo-Seong Kim and Prof. Yun-Sung Lee

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301037

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      V for victory: Aliovalent V-substitution in tetrahedral sites of Li in high-voltage spinel-phase LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathodes results in high performance at elevated temperatures. Vanadium doping suppresses Mn dissolution and unwanted side reactions with the electrolyte, and increases the conductivity, resulting in an improvement in the electrochemical performance at high temperatures.

    10. Enhanced Heterogeneous Catalytic Conversion of Furfuryl Alcohol into Butyl Levulinate (pages 835–840)

      Piera Demma Carà, Dr. Rosaria Ciriminna, Dr. N. R. Shiju, Prof. Dr. Gadi Rothenberg and Dr. Mario Pagliaro

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301027

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      Sour cat: Screening several commercial and as-synthesized solid acid catalysts in the condensation of furfuryl alcohol with 1-butanol to afford butyl levulinate shows that the best catalyst is a sulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous silica, allowing a significant improvement over the state-of-the-art. The catalyst selectively affords n-butyl levulinate in relatively short time at 110 °C.

    11. Hierarchically Porous Carbon with Manganese Oxides as Highly Efficient Electrode for Asymmetric Supercapacitors (pages 841–847)

      Tsu-chin Chou, Prof. Ruey-an Doong, Prof. Chi-chang Hu, Dr. Bingsen Zhang and Dr. Dang Sheng Su

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301014

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      Shaping up for charge: Hierarchically porous carbons combined with nanosized manganese oxides have been utilized as an asymmetric supercapacitor electrode. The unique hierarchical structures accelerate ion diffusion and increase the active surfaces of manganese oxide nanocrystals. The excellent electrochemical properties of the MnO2/hierarchical porous carbon composites make this material a possible candidate for high energy and power-density supercapacitors.

    12. Low-Temperature Activation of Hematite Nanowires for Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation (pages 848–853)

      Yichuan Ling, Gongming Wang, Hanyu Wang, Yi Yang and Prof. Yat Li

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301013

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      Cool customer: A low-temperature (350 °C) annealing process for improving the performance of hematite nanowires for photoelectrochemical water oxidation is reported. Oxygen vacancies are created in the hematite structure to increase the donor density and the electrical conductivity. The low-temperature activated hematite photoanode shows substantially enhanced photoactivity compared to the hematite sample prepared at 550 °C in air.

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      Graphene Oxide/α-Bi2O3 Composites for Visible-Light Photocatalysis, Chemical Catalysis, and Solar Energy Conversion (pages 854–865)

      Dr. Tirtha Som, Gerald V. Troppenz, Robert Wendt, Dr. Markus Wollgarten, Dr. Jörg Rappich, Dr. Franziska Emmerling and Prof. Dr. Klaus Rademann

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300990

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      Go go graphene oxide! A graphene oxide (GO)/α-Bi2O3 multifunctional composite, with only 1 wt % GO, exhibits approximately four to six times enhanced photocatalytic activities compared to commercial TiO2-P25 in the degradation of organic dyes. It is also extremely useful in the construction of photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells and catalyzes nitro to amino conversions selectively.

    14. Silver Supported on Titania as an Active Catalyst for Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Reduction (pages 866–874)

      Sichao Ma , Yangchun Lan , Gaby M. J. Perez, Saman Moniri and Prof. Paul J. A. Kenis 

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300934

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      TiO2 supports for CO2 conversion: TiO2 has been used as a catalyst support in fuel cells and for photo-electroreduction. This study reveals that TiO2 is a good support material for Ag nanoparticles used as catalyst (Ag/TiO2) for the reduction of CO2 to CO because of its unique role in the stabilization of the Ag particles as well as a key reaction intermediate.

    15. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Embedded in Activated Carbons Prepared from Hydrothermally Treated Waste Biomass (pages 875–882)

      Wenming Hao, Dr. Eva Björkman, Yifeng Yun, Malte Lilliestråle and Dr. Niklas Hedin

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300912

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      Waste not; want it! Iron oxide (Fe3O4; 20–40 nm) grows and is embedded in activated carbons during the activation of hydrothermally carbonized (HTC) biomasses in a flow of CO2 (see picture). The nanoparticles formed from the iron catalyst are used for the hydrothermal treatment and are larger than the pores of the activated carbon.

    16. Water Electrolysis with a Conducting Carbon Cloth: Subthreshold Hydrogen Generation and Superthreshold Carbon Quantum Dot Formation (pages 883–889)

      Dr. Mandakini Biswal, Aparna Deshpande, Dr. Sarika Kelkar and Dr. Satishchandra Ogale

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300827

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      “C–H2O–H Story”: A highly efficient conducting carbon cloth is used as an electrode in an alkaline electrolysis process (see picture). With the carbon cloth as the anode, hydrogen generation starts much below the threshold potential. If the applied potential is higher than the threshold potential, a copious amount of carbon quantum dots forms and shows bright-blue fluorescence under UV light.

    17. Hydrogen-Bond-Assisted Activation of Allylic Alcohols for Palladium-Catalyzed Coupling Reactions (pages 890–896)

      Yasemin Gumrukcu, Prof. Dr. Bas de Bruin and Prof. Dr. Joost N. H. Reek

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300723

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      Hydrogen Bond Rule(s): Direct activation of allylic alcohols and subsequent alkylation and amination reactions are reported. The new catalyst is based on functionalized palladium and phosphoramidite ligands to allow hydrogen bond-assisted activation. Kinetic data are in line with this mechanism as the oxidative addition is the rate-determining step.

    18. Amine-Functionalized Amino Acid-based Ionic Liquids as Efficient and High-Capacity Absorbents for CO2 (pages 897–902)

      Dr. Shunmugavel Saravanamurugan, Andreas J. Kunov-Kruse, Prof. Rasmus Fehrmann and Prof. Anders Riisager

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300691

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      Amines—what else? Amino acid–ammonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) using amino acids with additional amine groups are presented asnew absorbents for CO2 capture at ambient conditions with a capacity of up to 2 mol CO2 per mol of IL. NMR spectroscopy and in situ attenuated total reflectance FTIR studies supported by DFT calculations establish that both of the amine groups in the ILs participate in fast CO2 chemisorption through a carboxyl-catalyzed reaction.

    19. Design of a Continuous Process Setup for Precipitated Calcium Carbonate Production from Steel Converter Slag (pages 903–913)

      Hannu-Petteri Mattila and Prof. Ron Zevenhoven

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300516

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      CO2 utilization: Experimental work on an aqueous pH swing process that uses ammonium salts as solvents and steel slag under atmospheric conditions is reported. The process captures CO2 directly from a gas stream and transforms it to solid calcium carbonate. The dependence of the Ca extraction efficiency on the slag properties and process parameters is discussed together with continuous process design.

    20. Graphite Felt Modified with Bismuth Nanoparticles as Negative Electrode in a Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (pages 914–918)

      David J. Suárez, Dr. Zoraida González, Dr. Clara Blanco, Dr. Marcos Granda, Prof. Rosa Menéndez and Dr. Ricardo Santamaría

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301045

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      And it felt good: Bismuth nanoparticles enhance the performance of the negative half-cell of a vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The reversibility and long-term cycling performance of a graphite felt electrode are significantly improved. Bi favors the formation of BiHx, an intermediate that reduces V3+ to V2+, inhibiting the competitive irreversible hydrogen formation reaction, responsible for loss of efficiency of batteries with cycling.

    21. Ultrasounds in Melted Poly(ethylene glycol) Promote Copper-Catalyzed Cyanation of Aryl Halides with K4[Fe(CN)6] (pages 919–924)

      Guido Giachi, Marco Frediani, Werner Oberhauser, Frederic Lamaty, Jean Martinez and Evelina Colacino

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300997

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      Off the PEG: Melted poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEG)s were used for the first time as solvent for the sonochemical cyanation of aryl halides using K4[Fe(CN)6] and a relatively low amount of Cu catalyst (5 %). The weight-average molecular weight of PEG was proven to exert a notable influence on conversion, and CuI proved to be the most efficient catalyst, affording good results within short reaction times with the use of aryl iodides and activated aryl bromides as substrates.

    22. Synthesis of 5-Hydroxymethylfurural from Carbohydrates using Large-Pore Mesoporous Tin Phosphate (pages 925–933)

      Dr. Arghya Dutta, Dinesh Gupta, Dr. Astam K. Patra, Dr. Basudeb Saha and Prof. Dr. Asim Bhaumik

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300766

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      Sugar to fuel: A large-pore mesoporous tin phosphate material is synthesized hydrothermally by using Pluronic triblock copolymer as the template. This material shows high thermal stability and catalyzes naturally abundant carbohydrates in the aqueous phase to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which is a potential bio-based platform chemical to produce a broad range of chemicals and liquid transportation fuels.

    23. Anodic Nanotubular/porous Hematite Photoanode for Solar Water Splitting: Substantial Effect of Iron Substrate Purity (pages 934–940)

      Dr. Chong-Yong Lee, Dr. Lei Wang, Dr. Yuya Kado, Dr. Manuela S. Killian and Prof. Dr. Patrik Schmuki

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300603

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      Purity matters: This study highlights that the iron substrate purity used for any anodic hematite formation or thermal oxide approach is extremely important in view of the performance as a photoanode for photoelectrochemical water splitting. A ninefold increase in the water-splitting performance can be obtained by replacing the most common iron 99.5 % purity substrate with a 99.99 % purity.

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