ChemSusChem

Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 4

April 2014

Volume 7, Issue 4

Pages 943–1194

  1. Cover Pictures

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Reviews
    8. Minireview
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Cover Picture: Syntheses of Biodiesel Precursors: Sulfonic Acid Catalysts for Condensation of Biomass-Derived Platform Molecules (ChemSusChem 4/2014) (page 943)

      Dr. Madhesan Balakrishnan, Eric R. Sacia and Prof. Alexis T. Bell

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400089

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      The cover picture shows the utility of silica-supported alkyl sulfonic acid catalysts for the sustainable production of diesel fuel from biomass. A number of small furanic platform molecules are available from the acid-catalyzed dehydration of biomass-derived sugars. However, one of the main challenges to producing high quality biodiesel is selectively upgrading these small molecules into products appropriate for the diesel range (C11–C23). The silica-supported catalyst illustrated in the cover picture meets this challenge with high efficiency and recyclability without the need for a solvent, thereby contributing to sustainability of this green, alternative diesel precursor. The hydrophobic alkyl sulfonic acid functionality of this catalyst is the key for high activity as well as hydrolytic stability throughout the synthesis of the biodiesel precursors shown in this work. More detail is given in the Full Paper by Balakrishnan et al. on page 1078 (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300931), while more information about the research group is available in the Cover Profile (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400090).

    2. You have free access to this content
      Inside Cover Picture: Cu2O/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites for the Photocatalytic Conversion of CO2 (ChemSusChem 4/2014) (page 944)

      Xiaoqiang An, Kimfung Li and Dr. Junwang Tang

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400092

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      The inside cover shows a strategy to fabricate Cu2O/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) junction photocatalysts for the photoreduction of CO2 into solar fuel. With superior photoactivity for CO2 reduction, the junction further exhibits dramatically improved photostability. The perfect performance of the photocatalysts can be ascribed to the role of RGO as an efficient electron acceptor and a protection layer. The study by Tang et al. presents useful information for other photocatalysts modification for efficient CO2 reduction without the need of a noble metal cocatalyst; more details can be found in the Full Paper on page 1086 (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301194).

    3. You have free access to this content
      Back Cover: Superior Pseudocapacitive Behavior of Confined Lignin Nanocrystals for Renewable Energy-Storage Materials (ChemSusChem 4/2014) (page 1196)

      Dr. Sung-Kon Kim, Yun Ki Kim, Dr. Hyunjoo Lee, Prof. Sang Bok Lee and Prof. Ho Seok Park

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400091

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      The back cover picture shows the materials used by Park et al. to produce a renewable hybrid electrode: it consists of lignin nanocrystals confined on reduced graphene oxides (RGOs). Using this electrode results in a large maximum capacitance (432 F g−1), which is close to the theoretically obtainable value of 482 F g−1 and sixfold higher than that of RGO (93 F g−1). Remarkable rate and cyclic performances are also achievable. The excellent capacitive performance is attributed to the fast and reversible pseudocapacitive behavior of quinone moieties and the synergistic interplay between lignins and RGOs. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Park et al. on page 1094 (DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301061).

  2. Cover Profile

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Reviews
    8. Minireview
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Syntheses of Biodiesel Precursors: Sulfonic Acid Catalysts for Condensation of Biomass-Derived Platform Molecules (page 945)

      Dr. Madhesan Balakrishnan, Eric R. Sacia and Prof. Alexis T. Bell

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400090

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      “Fundamental principles of chemistry and engineering have significant utility in conversion of biomass to fuels… … .” This and more about the story behind the research that inspired the cover image can be found on page 945 (10.1002/cssc.201400090). View the front cover on page 943 (10.1002/cssc.201400089).

  3. Graphical Abstract

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    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Reviews
    8. Minireview
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Graphical Abstract: ChemSusChem 4/2014 (pages 946–955)

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201490015

  4. Masthead

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    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
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    10. Full Papers
    1. Masthead: ChemSusChem 4/2014 (pages 956–0)

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201490016

  5. News

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    1. Spotlights on our sister journals: ChemSusChem 4/2014 (pages 958–961)

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201490017

  6. Reviews

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    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
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    7. Reviews
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    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Recent Advances in Carbon Dioxide Capture, Fixation, and Activation by using N-Heterocyclic Carbenes (pages 962–998)

      Longhua Yang and Prof. Dr. Hongming Wang

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301131

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      Fixated on COO: CO2 emission causes many environmental problems. To mitigate the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, the fixation, activation, and capture of CO2 through chemical reactions is important. N-Heterocyclic carbenes and their related complexes are often used effectively for these purposes, as both ligands and catalysts. Advances in this area in homogeneous systems, including a discussion of their reaction mechanisms, are assessed.

    2. Deep Eutectic Solvents in Polymerizations: A Greener Alternative to Conventional Syntheses (pages 999–1009)

      Dr. Francisco del Monte, Dr. Daniel Carriazo, Dr. María C. Serrano, Dr. María C. Gutiérrez and Dr. M. Luisa Ferrer

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300864

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      Chain reaction: Deep eutectic solvent (DES)-assisted polymerizations, which exhibit greener features (reagent and solvent economy, mild reaction conditions, waste reduction, high reaction yields, etc.) than those of conventional ones, are described (see picture).

  7. Minireview

    1. Top of page
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    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Reviews
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    10. Full Papers
    1. Hydrolysis of Oligosaccharides Over Solid Acid Catalysts: A Review (pages 1010–1019)

      Dr. Léa Vilcocq, Prof. Paula C. Castilho, Dr. Florbela Carvalheiro and Dr. Luís C. Duarte

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300720

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      So solid catalyst: The hydrolysis of soluble poly/oligosaccharides increases the cost-effectiveness of biomass upgrading within the biorefinery framework. Solid acid catalysts represent an advantageous green alternative to catalyze this reaction. This Review discusses the advantages and limitations of their use and identifies desirable characteristics in the design of future solid acid catalysts.

  8. Communications

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    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
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    10. Full Papers
    1. Renewable and Functional Wood Materials by Grafting Polymerization Within Cell Walls (pages 1020–1025)

      Dr. Etienne Cabane, Tobias Keplinger, Vivian Merk, Dr. Philipp Hass and Prof. Ingo Burgert

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301107

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      Towards smart wood-based materials: The natural wood structure is used as a support to graft vinyl and acrylate monomers. The hydroxyls groups from wood are functionalized with azo-based initiators, which can further initiate polymerization in/from the cell wall structure. The versatile technique yields wood-based materials with new functionalities, and opens the way to new utilizations for bulk wood.

    2. Microbial Fuel Cells as Discontinuous Portable Power Sources: Syntropic Interactions with Anode-Respiring Bacteria (pages 1026–1029)

      Yaohuan Gao, Dr. Junyeong An, Dr. Hodon Ryu and Prof. Dr. Hyung-Sool Lee

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301085

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      Stayin' alive: Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) generate electric power from organic compounds using the extracellular electron transfer (EET) feature unique to anode-respiring bacteria (ARB). However, ARB in MFCs must function in a consistent, reliable manner in real-life (discontinuous) use scenarios. Herein, biopolymer-accumulating bacteria provide substrate for ARB to generate current in lack of exogenous electron donors in 4 days, allowing the use of MFCs as portable power source.

    3. Photodeposition of Copper and Chromia on Gallium Oxide: The Role of Co-Catalysts in Photocatalytic Water Splitting (pages 1030–1034)

      Dr. G. Wilma Busser, Dr. Bastian Mei, Anna Pougin, Dr. Jennifer Strunk, Ramona Gutkowski, Prof. Wolfgang Schuhmann, Dr. Marc-Georg Willinger, Prof. Robert Schlögl and Prof. Martin Muhler

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301065

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      Split second: The photocatalytic activity of gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3) depends strongly on the co-catalysts CuOx and chromia, which can be efficiently deposited in a stepwise manner by photoreduction of Cu2+ and CrO42−. The water-splitting activity can be tuned by varying the Cu loading in the range 0.025–1.5 wt %, whereas the Cr loading is not affecting the rate as long as small amounts (such as 0.05 wt %) are present. Chromia is identified as highly efficient co-catalyst in the presence of CuOx: it is essential for the oxidation of water.

    4. Capturing #CO2 with layered double hydroxide/silica #composites @CornellEng @KAUST News

      Synthesis and Carbon Dioxide Sorption of Layered Double Hydroxide/Silica Foam Nanocomposites with Hierarchical Mesostructure (pages 1035–1039)

      Dr. Liling Fu, Dr. Genggeng Qi, Dr. Osama Shekhah, Dr. Youssef Belmabkhout, Dr. Luis Estevez, Prof. Mohamed Eddaoudi and Prof. Emmanuel P. Giannelis

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300973

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      Respect the hierarchy: Hierarchical mesoporous layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites with high surface areas and large pore volumes are synthesized by controlled hydrothermal growth of LDH precursors on a mesoporous silica foam. The as-synthesized nanocomposites exhibit a significantly enhanced capacity and selectivity towards carbon dioxide, making them very promising candidates for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation applications.

    5. Biopolymer-Supported Ionic-Liquid-Phase Ruthenium Catalysts for Olefin Metathesis (pages 1040–1045)

      Dr. Nathalie Clousier, Alexandra Filippi, Dr. Etienne Borré, Dr. Eric Guibal, Dr. Christophe Crévisy, Dr. Fréderic Caijo, Dr. Marc Mauduit, Dr. Isabelle Dez and Prof. Annie-Claude Gaumont

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300804

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      Powerful, reusable, and recyclable catalytic materials based on supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) technology for ruthenium ring-closing metathesis (RCM) and cross metathesis (CM) reactions are reported. The materials use alginate, a cheap, renewable and easily conditioned biopolymer, as support. Their excellent recyclability (15 cycles) combined with their high reactivity in either monophasic or biphasic conditions (use of cyclohexane) makes them excellent choices for RCM and CM reactions.

    6. Small Molecular Donors for Organic Solar Cells Obtained by Simple and Clean Synthesis (pages 1046–1050)

      Dora Demeter, Salma Mohamed, Andreea Diac, Ion Grosu and Jean Roncali

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301339

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      Keep it simple: A simple donor–acceptor molecule is synthesized from 2,5-thiophene dialdehyde using two condensation reactions with water as sole by-product. A 30 mm2 simple bilayer solar cell fabricated with a spun-cast film of donor and vacuum-deposited C60 shows a power conversion efficiency >2.0 % under simulated solar light.

    7. Selective Glycerol Oxidation by Electrocatalytic Dehydrogenation (pages 1051–1056)

      Dr. Hyung Ju Kim, Jechan Lee, Sara K. Green, Prof. George W. Huber and Prof. Won Bae Kim

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301218

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      Being picky: A simple and direct conversion of glycerol into glyceric acid by anodic oxidation in two different types of electrocatalytic reactors is reported: a batch reactor with catalyst-coated carbon paper as the working electrode, and a continuous-flow reactor based on PEM technology. The results are compared to non-electrocatalytic glycerol oxidation using a conventional catalytic batch reactor.

    8. Hydrothermal Deoxygenation of Triglycerides over Pd/C aided by In Situ Hydrogen Production from Glycerol Reforming (pages 1057–1062)

      Stefan A. W. Hollak, Maxim A. Ariëns, Prof. Dr. Krijn P. de Jong and Dr. Daan S. van Es

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301145

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      With a little H2elp from my friends: A one-pot hydrolysis–deoxygenation reaction for triglycerides and free fatty acids, which is of particular interest for the production of biofuels and value-added chemicals from nonedible or waste fats and oils, is reported. The reaction is performed over palladium on carbon (Pd/C) at 250 °C without additional H2. Instead, in situ H2 production occurs through glycerol reforming and subsequent water–gas-shift reaction with a positive effect on the deoxygenation activity.

    9. Single-Ion Polymer Electrolyte Membranes Enable Lithium-Ion Batteries with a Broad Operating Temperature Range (pages 1063–1067)

      Dr. Weiwei Cai, Dr. Yunfeng Zhang, Dr. Jing Li, Dr. Yubao Sun and Dr. Hansong Cheng

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301373

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      Unity: Guided by mechanistic analyses of lithium-ion conductive processes, we demonstrate the excellent operability of lithium-ion batteries equipped with single ion polymer electrolyte membranes in a wide temperature range (25–80 °C). The performances are comparable to those of the batteries using liquid electrolyte of inorganic lithium salts.

    10. Nickel–Tungsten Carbide Catalysts for the Production of 2,5-Dimethylfuran from Biomass-Derived Molecules (pages 1068–1072)

      Yao-Bing Huang, Meng-Yuan Chen, Long Yan, Prof. Qing-Xiang Guo and Prof. Yao Fu

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301356

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      W ai Ni: A nickel–tungsten carbide on active carbon (Ni-W2C/AC) catalyst converts the biomass platform molecule 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) into the liquid fuel molecule 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) via the intermediate 5-methylfurfural. Synergy between the Ni and W2C components combines their hydrogenating and deoxygenating abilities and allows to achieve high yields of DMF.

    11. Highly Efficient Copper–Zinc–Tin–Selenide (CZTSe) Solar Cells by Electrodeposition (pages 1073–1077)

      Jong-Ok Jeon, Kee Doo Lee, Lee Seul Oh, Se-Won Seo, Dr. Doh-Kwon Lee, Dr. Honggon Kim, Dr. Jeung-hyun Jeong, Dr. Min Jae Ko, Dr. BongSoo Kim, Dr. Hae Jung Son and Prof. Dr. Jin Young Kim

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301347

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      Temp worker: Copper–zinc–tin–selenide (Cu2ZnSnSe4; CZTSe) thin-film solar cells are prepared by single-step electrodeposition of a metallic alloy precursor film and subsequent selenization. Beyond a certain annealing temperature, the enhanced crystallinity is compromised by poor physical properties. CZTSe thin films annealed at 550 °C show champion efficiency (8 %) among the electrodeposited devices.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Cover Profile
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Masthead
    6. News
    7. Reviews
    8. Minireview
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Syntheses of Biodiesel Precursors: Sulfonic Acid Catalysts for Condensation of Biomass-Derived Platform Molecules (pages 1078–1085)

      Dr. Madhesan Balakrishnan, Eric R. Sacia and Prof. Alexis T. Bell

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300931

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      Syntheses of biodiesel precursors: A silica-bound alkyl sulfonic acid catalyst has been developed for the process of upgrading biomass-derived furanic platform molecules to biodiesel precursors. The hydrophobic alkyl sulfonic acid functionality of this catalyst is responsible for the high activity in addition to the hydrolytic stability during the syntheses of biodiesel precursors. Various carbonyl compounds from biomass in combination with 2-methylfuran have been successfully upgraded to diesel-range compounds utilizing this catalyst.

    2. Cu2O/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites for the Photocatalytic Conversion of CO2 (pages 1086–1093)

      Xiaoqiang An, Kimfung Li and Dr. Junwang Tang

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301194

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      Exquisite composite: The conversion of CO2 has been achieved by using a Cu2O/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) junction without the need for a noble-metal co-catalyst. The composite exhibits an extremely high CO2 photoreduction efficiency and sustainable photocatalytic ability, which are attributed to the enhanced charge separation by RGO and its protective function.

    3. Superior Pseudocapacitive Behavior of Confined Lignin Nanocrystals for Renewable Energy-Storage Materials (pages 1094–1101)

      Dr. Sung-Kon Kim, Yun Ki Kim, Dr. Hyunjoo Lee, Prof. Sang Bok Lee and Prof. Ho Seok Park

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301061

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      Renewable hybrid energy-storage materials were fabricated by confining pseudocapacitive biopolymer nanocrystals on graphene surfaces, showing high specific energy and power densities due to the fast and reversible pseudocapacitive behavior of bioinspired quinone moieties and their synergistic interplay with electron-conducting reduced graphene oxides.

    4. Capacitance of p- and n-Doped Graphenes is Dominated by Structural Defects Regardless of the Dopant Type (pages 1102–1106)

      Adriano Ambrosi, Hwee Ling Poh, Lu Wang, Prof. Zdenek Sofer and Prof. Martin Pumera

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201400013

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      Show the doping, get the capacitance: The distinctive structural differences between doped graphene materials in terms of density of defects revealed by Raman spectroscopy is the determining factor as far as their capacitive properties are concerned, whereas type and amount of the doping heteroatoms seem to be largely irrelevant.

    5. Influence of Structural Variations in Push–Pull Zinc Porphyrins on Photovoltaic Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 1107–1113)

      Dr. Chenyi Yi, Dr. Fabrizio Giordano, Dr. Ngoc-Le Cevey-Ha, Dr. Hoi Nok Tsao, Dr. Shaik M. Zakeeruddin and Prof. Michael Grätzel

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301271

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      Dying to live: Subtle molecular structural variations in two zinc porphyrin dyes significantly influence the performance of dye-sensitized solar cell devices. By utilizing the dyes in combination with a cobalt-based redox electrolyte, a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) under simulated solar light is achieved. When using spiro-OMeTAD as the hole-transporting material in solid-state solar cells, the highest PCE for such a device until now is observed.

    6. CO2 Capture and Conversion with a Multifunctional Polyethyleneimine-Tethered Iminophosphine Iridium Catalyst/Adsorbent (pages 1114–1124)

      Nicholas D. McNamara and Prof. Jason C. Hicks

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301231

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      Balancing act: A tunable, multifunctional, solid material able to both capture CO2 and subsequently convert it to formic acid is synthesized by the modification of polyethyleneimine with an iminophosphine ligand and an Ir precatalyst. By altering the structure of the material, a balance between capture and conversion is reached, which results in an optimal multifunctional material.

    7. Role of Ultrathin Metal Fluoride Layer in Organic Photovoltaic Cells: Mechanism of Efficiency and Lifetime Enhancement (pages 1125–1132)

      Kyung-Geun Lim, Mi-Ri Choi, Ji-Hoon Kim, Dong Hun Kim, Gwan Ho Jung, Prof. Yongsup Park, Prof. Jong-Lam Lee and Prof. Tae-Woo Lee

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301152

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      Layer by layer: We elucidate how an ultrathin barium fluoride (BaF2) layer on the electron extraction contact affects the power conversion efficiency and lifetime of OPV devices. The open-circuit voltage increment observed in these devices was caused primarily by the lowered effective work function of the cathode caused by large dipole moment of thin BaF2 films.

    8. Synthesis and Application of Carbonated Fatty Acid Esters from Carbon Dioxide Including a Life Cycle Analysis (pages 1133–1139)

      Dr. Benjamin Schäffner, Dr. Matthias Blug, Dr. Daniela Kruse, Dr. Mykola Polyakov, Dr. Angela Köckritz, Dr. Andreas Martin, Dr. Prasanna Rajagopalan, Dr. Ursula Bentrup, Prof. Dr. Angelika Brückner, Dr. Sebastian Jung, Dr. David Agar, Bettina Rüngeler, Prof. Dr. Andreas Pfennig, Dr. Karsten Müller, Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Arlt, Dr. Benjamin Woldt, Dr. Michael Graß and Prof. Dr. Stefan Buchholz

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301115

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      Softening CO2: CO2 is used in combination with epoxidized fatty acid esters to synthesize new polyvinyl chloride plasticizers. A life cycle analysis study shows CO2 saving compared with the benchmark diisononyl phthalate; this mostly results from the use of biomass and not from the utilization of CO2.

    9. Base-Free, One-Pot Chemocatalytic Conversion of Glycerol to Methyl Lactate using Supported Gold Catalysts (pages 1140–1147)

      Rajeesh Kumar Pazhavelikkakath Purushothaman, Dr. Jacco van Haveren, Dr. Ignacio Melián-Cabrera, Dr. Ernst R. H. van Eck and Prof. Dr. Hero J. Heeres

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301105

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      From glycerol to green building blocks and solvents! An efficient, base-free conversion of glycerol to methyl lactate in methanol is reported, achieving good yields (73 % at 95 % glycerol conversion) using Au/ultra-stable zeolite-Y (USY) as the catalyst and environmentally benign oxygen as the oxidant by combining two separate reaction steps efficiently in a one pot procedure. The Au/USY catalyst can be recycled without a decrease in the activity and selectivity.

    10. Proton Conductivity in Doped Aluminum Phosphonate Sponges (pages 1148–1154)

      Jennifer Wegener, Dr. Anke Kaltbeitzel, Dr. Robert Graf, Dr. Markus Klapper and Prof. Dr. Klaus Müllen

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301055

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      Surf the NET: Acid-doped inorganic–organic hybrid materials based on aluminum phosphonates have been synthesized and can compete with the conductivity performance of commonly used benchmark polymers as a proton-exchange membrane for fuel cell applications. As a result of their sponge-like morphology, they can adsorb intrinsic proton conductors such as phosphonic acids.

    11. Cerium-Based Binary and Ternary Oxides in the Transesterification of Dimethylcarbonate with Phenol (pages 1155–1161)

      Prof. Angela Dibenedetto, Dr. Antonella Angelini, Luigi di Bitonto, Prof. Elvira De Giglio, Dr. Stefania Cometa and Prof. Michele Aresta

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301025

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      The transesterification of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) with phenol for phosgene-free synthesis of methylphenyl carbonate (MPC) is carried out using cerium-based bimetallic oxides, with the heterometal being iron, palladium, aluminum, or niobium). Some mixed oxides enhance the conversion and direct the selectivity towards the production of MPC. This effect is correlated to the nature of the metal and to its acid–base properties.

    12. Role of Additives in Formation of Solid–Electrolyte Interfaces on Carbon Electrodes and their Effect on High-Voltage Stability (pages 1162–1169)

      Dr. Weiguo Qu, Dr. Enkhtuvshin Dorjpalam, Prof. Ramakrishnan Rajagopalan and Prof. Clive A. Randall

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300858

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      Solid results: The formation of stable solid–electrolyte interfaces SEIs on high-surface-area activated carbon electrodes helps to extend their electrochemical voltage window, to 4.8 –1.2 V vs Li/Li+. SEI layers with higher inorganic contents are formed due to the presence of fluorophosphates-based additives in the electrolyte.

    13. Switchable Ionic Liquids as Delignification Solvents for Lignocellulosic Materials (pages 1170–1176)

      Ikenna Anugwom, Dr. Valerie Eta, Dr. Pasi Virtanen, Dr. Päivi Mäki-Arvela, Mattias Hedenström, Dr. Michael Hummel, Prof. Herbert Sixta and Prof. Jyri-Pekka Mikkola

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300773

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      Making the switch: A feasible fractionation method of birch chips (B. pendula) is developed by using a switchable ionic liquid (SIL) derived from an alkanol amine (monoethanol amine, MEA) and an organic super base (1,8-diazabicyclo-[5.4.0]-undec-7-ene, DBU) with two different trigger acid gases (CO2 and SO2) is studied. After SIL treatment, the dissolved fractions are selectively separated by a step-wise method using an antisolvent to induce precipitation. The SIL was recycled after concentration and evaporation of anti-solvent.

    14. Solid Catalysts for Multistep Reactions: One-Pot Synthesis of 2,3-Dihydro-1,5-benzothiazepines with Solid Acid and Base Catalysts (pages 1177–1185)

      Prof. Dr. Maria J. Climent, Prof. Dr. Avelino Corma, Prof. Dr. Sara Iborra and Laura Martí

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201301064

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      One-pot synthesis of 1,5-benzothiazepines: 2,3-Dihydro-1,5-benzothiazepines are synthesized through a tandem process from benzaldehyde, acetophenone, and 2-aminothiophenol derivatives with excellent yields by combining optimized solid base (rehydrated Al–Mg mixed oxide) and acid (AlMCM-41) catalysts in batch mode as well as in a fixed-bed continuous reactor system.

    15. Gas Separation Performance of Carbon Molecular Sieve Membranes Based on 6FDA-mPDA/DABA (3:2) Polyimide (pages 1186–1194)

      Dr. Wulin Qiu, Dr. Kuang Zhang, Fuyue Stephanie Li, Dr. Ke Zhang and Prof. Dr. William J. Koros

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201300851

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      Permeating through: Polyimide-based uncross-linked, thermally crosslinked, and carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes are prepared. Variations in the d spacing, the formation of pore structures, and changes in the pore sizes of the CMS membranes are discussed in relation to pyrolysis protocols. Both the polymer and CMS membranes are very attractive in aggressive natural gas purification applications.

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